EJPAU, 2002, Volume 5, Issue 1

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5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Veterinary Medicine
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Eucoleus contortus (Capillariinae, Nematoda) of alimentary tract in birds, was found in a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758) from north-western Poland under mucous membrane of esophagus in 55 out of 105 of examined birds (53.4%). The mean index of invasion (Janion’s index of invasion) "Z" was very high and amounted to 2.0. Statistically higher invasion intensity (median – 6, invasion index – 3.45) was found in birds coming from the region of strongly urbanised Szczecin than in birds from “Ujście Warty” National Park (median – 3.5, invasion index – 0.52). Such differences were not observed when grouping birds according to sex, age and year of hunting.
5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Fisheries
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al species meat lipids, the differences resulting from higher contents of two long chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA): eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic.
5(1) #05
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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The activity of plant origin albumins (obtained from dark and light pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and from white and brown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds) and animal origin albumins (ovoalbumin, BSA and human) in 2 enzymatically catalyzed model systems as well as their aromatic hydrophobicity and sulfhydryl groups content were investigated. Pea and bean albumins were much more effective in decreasing the production of superoxide anion radicals in hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system (82-97%) than animal-derived preparations (6-26%), whereas no big differences in activity were found when oxidation of linoleic acid by lipoxydase was monitored. No unequivocal correlation between sulfhydryl groups content or aromatic hydrophobicity and the antioxidant properties of preparations was observed.

5(1) #07
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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The purpose of this paper was to characterise bull–dam herds by examining herd phenotypic and genetic averages and variances, and their relationships.

5(1) #06
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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Cadmium and lead levels were examined in blood serum and hair of 79 horses reared in 7 breeding centres. Blood and hair samples were collected twice a year: in summer and in winter. The concentration of the metals was determined with the ICP EAS emission spectrophotometer, model JY 24. Mean concentration of cadmium in the horses' blood serum in summer ranged from 0.027 to 0.07 micromole per litre, and in winter – from 0.003 to 0.049 micromole per litre. Mean concentration of this element in hair of horses was observed in the range 0.039–0.997 milligram per kilogram of fresh weight in summer, and 0.0–0.111 milligram per kilogram in winter. Average lead values found in blood serum were from 0.09 to 0.44 micromole per litre (summer) and from 0.06 to 0.17 micromole per litre (winter). Mean lead concentration recorded in the hair of horses ranged from 0.0 to 10.7 milligram per kilogram in summer and from 0.0 to 2.46 milligram per kilogram in winter. The study allows concluding that significantly

5(1) #09
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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Polymorphic blood image of the horses was used to determine genetic distances between groups of horses of different colour. The study covered 1247 half–bred horses, for which the polymorphism of albumin (Al), transferrin (Tf), alkaline esterase (EspH 8.5), vitamin D binding protein (Gc) and Xk protein were determined. The analysis of genetic distance demonstrated that the studied groups of horses were considerably genetically separated depending on the colour. This allows concluding that there is an association between genetic polymorphism of some blood proteins and the coat colour of horses.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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Data on insemination and reinsemination were collected from 1 643 Black and White (BW) cows with varied share of Holstein–Friesian (HF) genes, which belonged to the active population managed in five large–scale production farms in the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Province, Poland. A total number of 351 repeated inseminations were recorded, which amounted to 7.71% of all inseminations. The rates of non–return to oestrus after reinseminations were by 2.05% better in relation to single inseminations, however, an economical analysis led to a conclusion that double insemination does not produce economical benefits and can only be recommended in specific cases, e.g. with prolonged oestrus. Highly significant effect on non–return rates after inseminating once or twice was demonstrated for the factors of HF genes share, farm, milk yield, age at first calving, subsequent calving, and season of insemination.

5(1) #06
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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The evaluation concerned usable parts of dill plants, cultivars Amat, Ambrozja, and Lukullus, grown in five cycles. The dill was sown on 10th April, 10th May, 10th June, 10th July, and 10th August. Harvesting was carried out when the plants were 25 cm in height, i.e. within 36-45 days of sowing. The basic discriminants of the chemical composition were determined in leaves of dill alone and in those with petioles. Leaves of dill when compared with leaves with petioles contained far greater amounts of dry matter, total sugars, dietary fibre, and total and protein nitrogen, smaller differences concerning ash, titration acidity, reducing sugars, and starch. For five growing periods the compared cultivars showed on the average small differences in the level of analysed discriminants, a slightly higher level, however, being noted in the case of titration acidity, sugars, and dietary fibre in the cultivar Lukullus and of ash and starch in Amat

5(1) #04
01 Mar 2002
Agronomy
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The study-compared effect of cytokinins on morphogenesis and ploidy of plants regenerated in vitro from explants of ‘Stanola F1’, ATZ and ATM pepper seeds. The aim of defining the morphogenetic potential of the studied genotypes, half-seed explants consisting the proximal part of the hypocotyl and radicle were put onto the MS medium containing BAP (5.0 mg.dm-3), 2iP (2.5 mg.dm-3), ZEA (2.5 mg.dm-3), TDZ (1.5 mg.dm-3), while MS medium without cytokinins constituted the control. After the initiation period, explants were transferred onto the medium without cytokinins. The effect of the growth regulators to the morphogenetic response of explants was estimated based on the number of explants on which adventitious buds and shoots were developing. The cytokinins applied did not show a significant effect on the development of adventitious buds on pepper explants. However, the ability to regene

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Veterinary Medicine
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Pneumoperitoneum is indispensable in diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic operations. The effect of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) on the course of two kinds of anesthesia before laparoscopy in dogs was studied.. Inhalation anesthesia with a mixture of oxygen and isofluran in a closed system was administered in group I, and infusion anesthesia with Thiopental in group II. Then pneumoperitoneum was produced, with constant intraperitoneal pressure of CO2 at a level of 12 mm Hg. All dogs were subjected to clinical, hematological and biochemical examinations. Positive results of the experiment indicate that pneumoperitoneum with CO2 may be used in both kinds of anesthesia.
5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Agronomy
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The present research was carried out over 1997-2000 on good rye (Agricultural Experiment Station Lipnik in the vicinity of Stargard Szczeciński) and good wheat (Agricultural Experiment Station Ostoja in the vicinity of Szczecin) soil suitability complexes in a static crop-rotation experiment, which compared the effect of soil cultivation systems: A - plough, B - ploughless, C – direct sowing (Lipnik Agricultural Experiment Station, only) on the growth, development and yielding of winter wheat in crop rotation: sugar beet – winter wheat – faba bean – winter barley + stubble intercrop (white mustard). The results presented cover winter wheat - ‘Kobra’. Irrespective of the soil cultivation system applied, significantly higher grain yields were obtained on the soil of medium quality. The reaction of plants to simplified pre-sowing cultivation depended on the soil. The light soil was observed to coincide with a significantly lower ear density and stem length, while the medium quality soil – with

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Agronomy
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The quantitative and qualitative composition of the soil microorganisms depends, amongst others, on whether monoculture or crop rotation is applied. The main phytopathogen infecting flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the Fusarium genus as well as fungi of the Alternaria, Phoma, Botrytis, Verticillium, Rhizoctonia genera, however soil hyperparasites of the Trichoderma genus can control them successfully. Both types of microorganisms were isolated from the roots sampled both from monocuture and crop rotation and from plants in emergence and flowering stage. The enzymatic activity was researched for a variety of nutrient substrates (cellulose, pectin, starch, protein) as well as the capacity for dissolving triphosphates. There was also investigated the extent of Trichoderma fungal antagonistic activity towards pathogens. Fusarium spp. was most frequent over emergence in monoculture; the quantity was similar in monoculture and in crop rotation as w

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Horticulture
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Content and composition of free phenolic acids fraction as well as tannins in leaves (blades and leaf stalk) of two celery cultivars (Helios and Zefir) were evaluated in studies. It was found that tannin levels in both raw materials were from 2.09 to 7.42%, but leaf stalks contained about 3-fold more than blades. Also content of free phenolic acids sum was determined in raw material. Studies revealed that blades contained about 3-fold more phenolic acids than leaf stalks. Such results could point that celery might be of chemopreventive properties.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Fisheries
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The Lake Miedwie vendace feeding was studied in summer 2000. The vendace food was found to contain 7 zooplankton species, Leptodora kindtii being a clear dominant in terms of weight, abundance, and frequency. The L. kindtii domination was maintained throughout the period of study. In late summer, stomachs of females contained less food than those of males did. The observations are discussed against a backdrop provided by results of an earlier zooplankton study.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Biotechnology
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The aim of the research was to obtain interspecific hybrids of distilling yeast and xylose-fermenting yeast and to assess their fermentative activity in media containing xylose. Distilling yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae D43 and xylose-fermenting yeast Candida shehatae ATCC 58779, Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 32691 and Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 60392 were used. Medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source was used for selecting the interspecific hybrids. Incubation temperature (42˚C) and crystal violet (0.01%) were used as additional selection factors for hybrids of the yeast Candida shehatae ATCC 58779 and Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 32691 or Pachysolen tannophilus ATCC 60392, respectively.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Forestry
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The research covered the impact of forest litters on the content of organic carbon, nitrogen and other macroelements as well as the soil reaction. Forest litter samples were obtained from black (A. glutinosa), grey (A. incana) and green (A. viridis) alder forests as well as from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and fir (Abies alba) forest. Compared to beech and fir trees alders enrich soil with organic carbon and nitrogen much stronger. Out of the three studied alder species the green one enrich the soil most intensively.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Economics
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Information is basic and essential element of every human’s activity and has incredibly important role in every sphere of life. This word hides many meanings. Information is the data as well as knowledge used during decision taking process. That is also whole range of interpersonal communication and news involved in sorting out the problems.

5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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Meat quality was examined in 120 fatteners in 5 experimental groups. The analysis included meat quality traits of hybrid pigs, which had been obtained from crossing Polish Large White × Polish Landrace sows with boars of the following breeds and crosses: Pietrain (P), L.990 × Pietrain (LP), Pietrain × L.990 (PL), Duroc × Pietrain (DP), Pietrain × Duroc (PD). The studies demonstrated that the fatteners sired by Pietrain boars (P) were characterised by the highest meatiness, though attained worse meat quality in relation to those from hybrid sires that had 25% of Pietrain blood. It was also demonstrated that the combining ability in reciprocal crossing had no significant influence on the difference in meat quality between the groups LP and PL, as well as DP and PD. In the whole studied material, the meat of barrows had higher intramuscular fat content and brighter colour compared to that of gilts.

5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Agricultural Engineering
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The paper presents the method of quantitative and qualitative evaluation of spray application based on deposit and coverage measurements on artificial targets. This relatively simple and fast method is proposed for small scale comparative field experiments with air-assisted orchard sprayers. Biological efficacy, being very important for the grower, is not enough informative method of evaluation of spraying technique from the cognitive point of view. Therefore fluorescent dye and filter paper as artificial targets was proposed. Water Sensitive Papers (WSP) are the most common artificial targets for spray coverage evaluation. Spray coverage expressed as a percentage of target area covered by spray give additional information what portion of protected area is in direct contact with the chemical. The method is demonstrated for the Joco tunnel sprayer and conventional air-assisted sprayers.

5(1) #04
01 Mar 2002
Veterinary Medicine
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The goal of the research was to specify the share of rats, coming from different environments, in transmitting and remaining in the environment of bacterial, virus and mycotic infections.

5(1) #05
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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The analysis was carried out on 67 primiparous cows of different colour sired by black–white red–factor (RF) bulls, kept in a modern dairy farm in south–west Poland. The aim of this study was to confirm or reject the hypothesis that the daughters with different colours obtained from red–white mothers and black–white RF bulls may also differ in their milk yield during the first 305–day lactation corrected on age and calving season. The cows with different colour were statistically similar with regard to the investigated milk performance traits. Average corrected yield of RF bulls’ daughters with black–white or red–white colour was respectively 10 300 and 10 112 kg of milk with 4.31 and 4.32% of fat, and 3.08 and 3.13% of protein. The observed relative differences in the range of the investigated milk traits of cows with different colour were not higher than 2%, except for the FPD index. The greatest relative difference between cows with different genotype (below 75.0 and above 75.1

5(1) #04
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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The aim of work was to examine the influence of lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, delta-gluconolactone, lactulose and sorbitol on the production of cellulases by mutant strain Trichoderma reesei M-7 during batch and continuous cultivation. Positive results were achieved in the presence of lactobionic acid and lactulose as inducers. In both cases the highest inductive effect of cellulase production was observed in the presence of 1% mixtures of above mentioned substrates at the ratio 1:1 (0.5% : 0.5%) with lactose. (about 20% higher than that observed in the presence of 1% of lactose) The induction mechanism of lactobionic acid and lactulose may be attributed by slow rate of their utilisation (slower than lactose). Explanation of the inductive mechanism of lactose, lactobionic acid and lactulose on cellulases production by Trichoderma reesei demands further investigations among other with using a purified beta-galactosidase enzyme.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Agronomy
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A plant bioassay technique was developed for detecting residues of isoxaflutole in the soil. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were grown in treated soil with various concentrations of isoxaflutole. A Hadley fine sandy loam (Typic Udifluvents) soil (South Deerfield, MA) was used for bioassay study. Bioassay was conducted in a controlled growth chamber. Isoxaflutole inhibited the growth of radish and oilseed rape. Wheat was more tolerant to isoxaflutole even at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations used for radish and oilseed rape. Maize was tolerant to isoxaflutole in a fine sandy loam soil. The amount of the herbicide required to reduce the above-ground growth of test species by 50%, GR50 was estimated from dose-response data, using logistic regression curves.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Agricultural Engineering
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The purpose of the research was to compare uncontrolled air exchange at nurseries with different air inlet solution. Four identical 400 m2 nursery departments were investigated. Three of them used porous ceiling as an air inlet, with different area of ceiling designed to be permeable. The areas of porous ceiling tested were 300, 150 and 75 m2 respectively. In fourth department ventilation air entered the room through, also located in the ceiling, high speed inlet systems. Actual air exchange in the departments was evaluated from H2O balance. The data required for calculation, i.e. inside and outside temperatures and humidities were being continuously monitored and registered from mid of December, 2000 to early February, 2001 to include first 5 weeks after moving piglets to each departments. Propane consumption was checked every day. U – value for the outside walls was calculated and additionally checked by means of thermovision. The number of piglets moved t

5(1) #05
01 Mar 2002
Agronomy
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The aim of the present study was to determine a correlation between nitrogen fertilisation and leaf chlorophyll content as measured using an optical instrument – a chlorophyll meter and an effect of different nitrogen fertilisation doses on the yield and quality of leaves of the ‘Wiślica’ cultivar of the Virginia tobacco. To this purpose, a field experiment was conducted, in which varied nitrogen fertilisation was applied. During the vegetation period leaf chlorophyll content was examined, using the chlorophyll meter, as well as leaf nitrogen content. After harvesting and drying the leaves, the yield was assessed in terms of quantity and then graded according to its quality. Statistical analysis carried out afterwards demonstrated that the increase in nitrogen fertilisation had resulted in the yield growth together with the deterioration of the raw product quality. The results of the measurements with the chlorophyll meter proved to be closely correlated with nitrogen content in leaf blades

5(1) #08
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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Studies on cryptosporidiosis were carried out on 171 calves from 5 selected farms in the region of Western Pomerania , 37 lambs from 2 farms and 26 colts, respectively, between March 1999 and June 2001. The detection of Cryptosporidium sp. based on the two methods, ie. the Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique and the coproantigen test. The positive effects having applied the coproantigen test were recorded in 24.56% calves, 24.32% lambs, and 11.54% colts.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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The experiment was carried out on 4 pregnant goats at age 2–3 years. Changes in basic indices of renal function were analysed in the scope of hydro–electrolyte management in the consecutive five months of gestation. Blood and urea samples were collected fortnightly during the first three months of gestation, and weekly during the remaining two months. The analyses included urea volume and glomerular filtration rate, as well as blood plasma concentration, clearance, tubular reabsorption and excretion of sodium, potassium, chlorides and total osmotically active substances.

5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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This work presents the survival rate of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria in a changing pH medium inhibiting their growth. The bacteria were kept in pH ranging from 2 – 6, which is a pH of pickled vegetables or stomach. The growth of the bacteria was measured with the use of the method of inoculation onto Petrie’s plates and nephelometric method. The longest survival rate of the bacteria was noticed in the pH ranging from 4 – 6. Moreover, the growth of the bacteria is correlated with the absorbance level measured with a nephelometric method. The results of the experiments upheld the presumption saying that the Loctobacillus plantarum bacteria are able to survive in man’s stomach the time they spend there together with the food.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Agricultural Engineering
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Poultry is particularly vulnerable to heat stress conditions. Birds have no possibility to loose the heat by sweating, thus losses by convection and respiration remain the only mechanisms for taking the heat out of them. Whereas there is common consensus among scientists and growers on optimum ambient temperature range for well feathered 4-6 weeks old broilers, there are considerable differences in evaluation of potential negative effects of their exceeding in terms of production result, health status or animal welfare.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Horticulture
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The level of genetic diversity between 16 cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and the wild species of Fragaria virginiana Duch. was studied on the basis of the analysis of their DNA (RAPD reaction – randomly amplified polymorphic DNA). Six 10-nucleotide primers generated jointly 354 bands, of which 94.8% were polymorphic and 5.2% monomorphic. The analysis of interrelations was carried out on the basis of Dice similarity matrix. Presentation of relationship between the analysed genotypes on the dendrogram obtained by means of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA).

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Biotechnology
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The effects of organogenesis on in vitro leaf explants of plum ‘Węgierka Zwykła’ cultured on media with either TDZ or BAP were compared. TDZ was applied at concentration of 0.5 – 1.65 mg/l in combination with 2,4 – D, and BAP at concentration of 3.0 or 5.0 mg/l with one of the auxins: IBA, NAA or 2,4 – D. As the result two different ways of organogenesis were observed: the efficient (60%-72%) indirect organogenesis induced by TDZ, and direct organogenesis, or with only very small callus formation on media supplied with BAP. Explants cultured on media with TDZ produced big masses of callus followed by differentiation of numerous adventitious buds in clusters while on media containing BAP only single buds of smaller size were formed.
5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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The effect of incubation temperature on hydrophobic properties of Listeria spp. using ammonium sulphate aggregation test was analyzed. 29 strains of Listeria spp. isolated from beef, pork and smoked fish were tested. Results show that reducing the incubation temperature causes transformation of hydrophilic Listeria spp. into hydrophobic.

5(1) #02
01 Mar 2002
Food Science and Technology
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Ewe's milk non-concentrated and concentrated by ultrafiltration to 60% of initial volume, was processed into soft cheese. The cheese were stored, in 4°C, for 14 days. The milk, retentate and fresh cheese were analyzed and also cheese after 7 and 14 days of storage were estimated. Organoleptic assessment, yield, physico-chemical properties and texture analyses were done in cheese. It was observed that cheese yield made from ultrafiltrated milk was higher than from non-concentrated milk. The fresh cheese made from concentrated milk contained more: water, total nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids and less fat. These cheese were softer and had higher cohesiveness than cheese made form non-concentrated milk. The ultrafiltration enchanced the cheese properties. All cheese were edible after 14 days of storage.

5(1) #03
01 Mar 2002
Fisheries
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The study focussed on differentiation of hepatic and pancreatic cells in asp (Aspius aspius L.) larvae during early ontogeny (1–21 days post hatch). Histological evaluations and histochemical assays showed the asp liver and pancreas to commence functioning almost simulatenously, between the third and the fifth day of larval life.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Environmental Development
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The studies conducted from 1997 to 1999 in a vegetation hall were performed as a pot experiment on ordinary silt with cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 81.1 cmol (+) · kg–1, pHKCl = 6.0 and organic C content of 9.5% serving as soil. Jerusalem artichoke, maize, Sida hermaphrodita Rusby, amaranth and hemp were used as indicator plants. The results confirmed, implied earlier, great diversification of the element contents which depends not only on the species but also on the part of plants. Analysis of the data revealed also another dependence: increased concentration of heavy metals in the soil corresponds to higher content of heavy metals in the plants. Significant differences were observed for the plant species from unpolluted and contaminated at various levels treatments.

5(1) #04
01 Mar 2002
Animal Husbandry
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The phenotype in 19 tobiano–leopard ponies has been described. The tobiano pattern has been identified in them according to the arrangement of white and dark areas, sharp and smooth edges of the areas, rather big white markings on heads, white legs or large markings on the legs and sometimes wall eyes. The leopard–spotted pattern has been recognised thanks to the dark leopard spots of the base colour or darker, the roaned or frosted areas emerging from white patches or occupying the whole dark patches, jagged patch edges, fragments of mottled skin, eyes with visible sclera and striped hooves. Sometimes, only the visible sclera or a blurred part of the patch edge has indicated the presence of the leopard–spotted pattern.

5(1) #01
01 Mar 2002
Veterinary Medicine
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The research aimed at determing the values of selected hematological and biochemical parameters of cows’ blood characterized by acid-base equilibrium during their drying-off and the beginning of lactation. Acid-base equilibrium (RKZ) parameters and the level of hematological parameters were determined, and in plasma the following were determined: total protein and its fractions, glucose, macro-elements: Ca, inorganic P, Mg, Na, K and Cl as well as the following enzyme activity: AspAT, AlAT, AP and GGTP. All analyses were conducted three times: 4 weeks before delivery, one week and 4 weeks after delivery. The obtained results indicate that the drying-off period and the beginning of lactation do not influence the level of acid-base equilibrium parameters and hematological parameters, however they do influence enzyme activity, particularly AP and GGTP, which increased during the beginning of the lactation period. The status of acid-base equilibrium, glucose and total protein content in blood plasma of cows may c

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