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Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.

Volume 9
Issue 4
Topic:
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
. , EJPAU 9(4), #39.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume9/issue4/art-39.html


 

ABSTRACT

The examination was performed on 81 fecal samples, collected from swine, which came from three farms located in Dolnoslaskie and Wielkopolskie provinces, and on 42 samples from dogs from experimental breeding and dogs belongs to private owners. With both methods, as well Fülleborn’s method as Fecalyzer method, infection in swine of coccidia (Coccidia) and nematods: Oesophagostomum spp. and Ascaris suum was detected. While, in dog feces the eggs of large roundworm Toxascaris leonina and whipworm Trichuris vulpis was detected. Method with Fecalyzer turned out slightly more sensitive than Fülleborn’s method in case of infection of A. suum in swine and T. vulpis in dogs, and differences in prevalence of infection with this parasites amounted suitably 1.2% and 2.4%. Besides, method with Fecalyzer was characterized by smaller labour intensity and was less time-consuming than Fülleborn’s method. Optimal, recommended time after which should be made result reading in this method, should be at least 10 minutes.

Key words: .

INTRODUCTION

Fecal flotation techniques take advantage of effect, that cysts, oocysts or eggs of parasites coming to the surface, if their specific gravity is lower than specific gravity of solutions used in examination. Flotation method, with using one-time kit of Vetoquinol company called Fecalyzer and Fecasol liquid, have practical application in diagnostic of parasitic infection in animals and humans from the half of the 1970s [6, 10]. This method is common using in USA and knowing in West-European countries. In Poland not used to date in diagnostic and researches, in contrast with two others flotation methods: Fülleborn’s method and Willis’ method [9]. There are little publications in available world literature, which carry out the comparative analysis of mentioned methods, and there are lack of this publication in polish literature at all. Therefore the self-examination was performed, comparing two methods: Fülleborn’s method and Fecalyzer method in diagnostic of internal parasites infections in swine and dogs. Both methods can detect in feces all developmental stages of parasites (cysts, oocysts, eggs), which have lower specific gravity than 1.20 g/cm3, because such specific gravity have saturated solution of NaCl and concentrated solution of Chile niter, which are using in examination. Because diagnostic of tapeworms infection is grounded on morphology of gravid proglottids expelling in feces, and only specific gravity of fluke eggs is higher than 1.20 g/cm3, methods which are compared have wide application in detecting of almost all species of coccidia and nematods in swine and dogs [1, 5, 7, 10]. For example, the specific gravity of eggs of Toxascaris leonina amount to 1.06 g/cm3, Toxocara canis – 1.09 g/cm3, and Trichuris vulpis – 1.12 g/cm3 [2].

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The examination was performed on 81 fecal samples, collected from swine, which came from three farms located in Dolnoslaskie and Wielkopolskie provinces, and on 42 samples from dogs from experimental breeding and dogs belongs to private owners. Each sample was examined with both methods. For performing parasitic analysis of fecal sample with Fülleborn’s method was used standard laboratory kit (fig. 1), while for flotation with Fecalyzer was used Vetoquinol company kit (fig. 2). In Fülleborn’s method was used saturated solution of table salt (360 g NaCl/1 l water), in method with Fecalyzer – concentrated solution of Chile niter (350 g NaNO3/1 l water). Weight of fecal sample used in Fecalyzer amounted around 1 g, while in Fülleborn’s method fluctuated from 2 to 3 g (size of hazelnut). Flotation according to Fülleborn was performed in accordance with standard procedure [4], whereas flotation with Fecalyzer in accordance with instruction printed in publication of Vetoquinol company [8]. The methods were compared applied identical time of anticipation for result reading – 15 minutes. Besides that, for method with Fecalyzer was taking various times of anticipation for result reading (5, 10 and 15 minutes) in order to determine the optimal time of result reading. Despite, that compared methods are not quantitative but qualitative, the number of parasite oocysts or eggs founded in two drops picked from Erlenmeyer flask in Fülleborn’s method or under the cover glass (24x24 mm) in method with Fecalyzer, was calculated every time.

Fig. 1. Standard laboratory kit for feces examination in Fülleborn’s method

Fig. 2. Kit for feces examination in method with Fecalyzer

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

With both methods, as well Fülleborn’s method as Fecalyzer method, infection in swine of coccidia (Coccidia) and nematods: Oesophagostomum spp. and Ascaris suum was detected. Most frequently was observed one-species infection caused by Oesophagostomum spp. (21.0%), less often multi-species infections (7.4%). Prevalence of coccidia infection and Oesophagostomum spp. infection was the same in both methods and amounted suitably 2.5% and 28.4%. Whereas small differences concerned Ascaris suum infections: 3.7% (Fülleborn’s method) and 4.9% (Fecalyzer method) (tab. 1). Despite, that fecal sample used in Fülleborn’s flotation was 2-3 times bigger, but average numbers of oocysts were 1.5 times, and nematods eggs even more than 2.5 times higher in Fecalyzer method (tab. 2). It’s mean, that during examination with Fülleborn’s method, considerable number of oocysts or eggs of parasites is losing.

Table 1. Prevalence (%) of internal parasite infection in swine, which fecal samples were comparative examined with two flotation methods

Methods

Number of samples

examined

infected

containing eggs or oocysts

Oesophagostomum spp.

Ascaris suum

Coccidia

Fülleborn

81

23
(28.4)

23
(28.4)

3
(3.7)

2
(2.5)

Fecalyzer

81

23
(28.4)

23
(28.4)

4
(4.9)

2
(2.5)

Table 2. Average number of internal parasite eggs or oocysts in swine, which fecal samples were comparative examined with two flotation methods

Methods

Average number of eggs or oocysts

Oesophagostomum spp.

Ascaris suum

Coccidia

Fülleborn

32.7

8.7

10.5

Fecalyzer

86.6

21.5

15.5

In dog feces the eggs of large roundworm Toxascaris leonina and whipworm Trichuris vulpis was detected. One-species infection caused mainly by T. vulpis, and also by T. leonina (11.9%) dominated. Also small difference in Trichuris vulpis prevalence in both methods was noted: 11.9% (Fecalyzer) and 9.5% (Fülleborn) (tab. 4). As well, average numbers of nematods eggs founded in both methods were slightly bigger in flotation with Fecalyzer (tab. 5).

Table 3. Average number of internal parasite eggs or oocysts in swine observed in method with Fecalyzer after 5, 10 and 15 minutes of examination

Parasite eggs or oocysts

Number of samples

Time of examination (minutes)

5

10

15

Oesophagostomum spp.

5

37.8

44.4

33.6

Ascaris suum

1

7

30

19

Coccidia

1

3

12

13

Table 4. Prevalence (%) of internal parasite infection in dogs, which fecal samples where comparative examined with two flotation methods

Methods

Number of samples

examined

infected

containing eggs

Trichuris vulpis

Toxascaris leonina

Fülleborn

42

5
(11.9)

4
(9.5)

2
(4.8)

Fecalyzer

42

6
(14.3)

5
(11.9)

2
(4.8)

Table 5. Average number of internal parasite eggs in dogs, which fecal samples were comparative examined with two flotation methods

Methods

Average number of eggs

Trichuris vulpis

Toxascaris leonina

Fülleborn

7.5

54.0

Fecalyzer

19.8

82.5

Comparison of average number of parasite oocysts or eggs surfacing after 5, 10 and 15 minutes in flotation with Fecalyzer show, that already after 5 minutes can be made right diagnosis. But optimal, recommended time after which should be made result reading, in this method should be at least 10 minutes (tab. 3, tab. 6). It’s in conformity with results of researches of other authors [3]. Data from table 6, marked by grey color, demanding explanation. This data concerns one, small sample – a mixture of thick mucus and thinned out feces, in which were found the eggs of three species of parasitic nematods. There were eggs of unusually seldom founding in Poland lung nematode – Capillaria aerophila (synonym: Eucoleus aerophilus), eggs of large roundworm of canids (Toxocara canis) and nematods from hookworms family (Ancylostomatide). Unfortunately, on account of scanty quantity of this sample, there was no possibility to make an examination with result reading after 10 minutes. In examination performed after 5 minutes the eggs of hookworms and Toxocara canis were observed, while was lack of C. aerophila eggs. Eggs of this nematode were founded only in examination carried out after 15 minutes. Probably the reason of surfacing of C. aerophila eggs after longer time was their localization in mucous secretion from upper airway, which was mixed with thinned out feces, in which were the eggs of others nematods.

Table 6. Average number of internal parasite eggs or oocysts in dogs observed in method with Fecalyzer after 5, 10 and 15 minutes of examination

Eggs of parasites

Number of samples

Time of examination (minutes)

5

10

15

Trichuris vulpis

5

13.8

18.6

18.6

Toxascaris leonina

2

209

142.5

82.0

Capillaria aerophila

1

0

*

11

Toxocara canis

1

1

*

9

Ancylostomatidae

1

62

*

125

* not examinated

Method with Fecalyzer turned out slightly more sensitive than Fülleborn’s method in case of infection of A. suum in swine and T. vulpis in dogs, and differences in prevalence of infection with this parasites amounted suitably 1.2% and 2.4%. Besides, method with Fecalyzer, what was proved in researches of other authors, show also higher sensitivity in comparison with some other sedimentation-flotation methods in diagnosing of coccidiosis and nematode infections in dogs and cats [5].

Method with Fecalyzer was also characterized by smaller labour intensity and was less time-consuming than Fülleborn’s method. Concentrated solution of Chile niter, which was used in this method, damaging the oocysts and eggs of parasites in smaller degree than saturated solution of table salt. In Fülleborn’s method, already after several minutes of observation, multi-points crystallization appeared, what significant limited the observation time and made photographic recording of microscopic picture hard. In method with Fecalyzer, crystallization of NaNO3 came very slowly, beginning from the edges of cover glass.

REFERENCES

  1. Broussard J.D., 2003. Optimal Fecal Assessment. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 18, 4, 218-230.

  2. David E. D., Lindquist W. D., 1982. Determination of the specific gravity of certain helminth eggs using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. J. Parasitology, 68, 5, 916-919.

  3. Dreyden M.W., Payne P.A., Ridley R., Smith V., 2005. Comparison of Common Fecal Flotation Techniques for the Recovery of Parasite Eggs and Oocysts. Veterinary Therapeutics, 6, 1, 15-28.

  4. Gund³ach J.L., Sadzikowski A.B., 1998. Diagnostyka i zwalczanie inwazji paso¿ytów u zwierzat [Diagnostics and Control of Parasite Infections in Animals]. Wyd. 3, Wydawnictwo AR w Lublinie, 9-11 [in Polish].

  5. Huebner T., Nannen B., Oppermann M., Zimmermann D., 2000. Vergleichende Darstellung koprologischer Untersuchungstechniken zur Diagnostik von Endoparasiten bei Hund und Katze [Comparing Fecal Examination Techniques for Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites in the Dog and Cat]. Praktischer Tierarzt, 81, 10, 818-826 [in German].

  6. Modaber I., 1978. For detection of parasite eggs in human stools. A comparison between 3 technics. Med. Trop., 38, 1, 91-93.

  7. O’Grady M.R., Slocombe J.O., 1980. An Investigation of Variables in a Fecal Flotation Technique. Can. J. comp. Med. 44, 148-154.

  8. Po³ozowski A., 2006. Koproskopia z Fecalyzerem [Coproscopy with Fecalyzer]. Vetoquinol Biowet, Gorzów Wielkopolski, 5-7 [in Polish].

  9. Po³ozowski A., Nowak M., 2006. Metoda z Fecalyzerem a odrobaczanie psów i kotów [Coproscopy with Fecalyzer and Deworming Dogs and Cats]. Mag. Wet., 15, 115, 64-66 [in Polish].

  10. Wilkins R.J., 1973. A simplified method of standardized cefal analysis for small animal practice. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 68, 249-254.

 

Accepted for print: 4.12.2006



Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.


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