Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2005
Volume 8
Issue 4
Topic:
Economics
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Bralewski T. , Ho逝bowicz R. 2005. SEASONAL PATTERN OF ADVERTISING OF SEED COMPANIES IN POLISH HORTICULTURAL MAGAZINES, EJPAU 8(4), #65.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume8/issue4/art-65.html

SEASONAL PATTERN OF ADVERTISING OF SEED COMPANIES IN POLISH HORTICULTURAL MAGAZINES

Tomasz W. Bralewski, Roman Ho逝bowicz
Department of Horticultural Seed Science and Technology, August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

Out of agricultural and horticultural magazines edited on the Polish market, in which vegetable crops has been a dominating subject, Has這 Ogrodnicze (HO) and Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty (OWK) were selected. When selecting a magazine, the criteria of presence on the market, number of copies and topics, were taken under consideration. In the selected magazines, in the years 2001-2003, the monthly pattern of number and size of advertising spots and articles of seed companies was investigated. It was found out that both number and size of the advertising had a seasonal pattern and was related with the time of selling seeds and the time of the International Agro-horticultural Fair “POLAGRA”. The pattern was also affected by public relations activities undertaken by the biggest foreign companies and their representatives.

Key words: horticultural magazine, advertising, seed company, promotion, seed marketing.

INTRODUCTION

The printed spots have been the most popular and important form of advertising policy of seed companies [3, 5]. An important place of this advertising has been horticultural magazines [4]. One of the activity characters of seed companies has been their seasonal pattern [6]. The main goal of the carried out investigations was to find out in what extend the seasonal pattern affects the advertising policy in the horticultural magazines.

Fig 1. “Has這 Ogrodnicze” (HO) and “Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty” (OWK)
        

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Out of agricultural and horticultural magazines edited on the Polish market, in which vegetables crops has been a dominating subject, two were selected addressed to the professionals. When selecting magazines, the following criteria were taken under consideration: presence on the market, number of copies and topics. In the selected magazines, in the years 2001-2003, the monthly pattern of number and size of advertising spots and articles of seed companies was investigated. The received data were collected for each year separately, and then the mean values were calculated.

RESULTS

As a result of carried out analysis of the Polish press market of agricultural and horticultural magazines, two most important, orientated for professional gardeners, were selected. These were: Has這 Ogrodnicze (HO) and Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty (OWK) (tab. 1). The characteristics of these magazines are given in the table 2.

Table 1. Characteristics of the Polish press market of horticultural and agricultural magazines

Source of information

Agricultural magazines

total (number)

Horticultural magazines

total (number)

concerning vegetable crops1 (number)

for professionals

A

56

9

22

B

35

15

22

Explantations:
1 – vegetable crops is one of the leading subjects in the magazines
2 – “Has這 Ogrodnicze” (“HO”), “Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty” (“OWK”)
Source: our own based on: A – [1], B – [2]

Table 2. Characteristics of the horticultural magazines for professionals on the Polish press market including in their subjects vegetable crops

Characteristics

Magazine

Has這 Ogrodnicze

Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty

Publisher

Plantpress
sp. z o.o.

Hortpress
sp. z o.o.

Year of establishing

1932

1961

Frequency of issuing

monthly

biweekly

Capacity (number of pages)

120

40-48

Price (z)

8.0

5.5

Issue size (average number of copies in the first quarter of 2003) (number)

15 000

10 000

An average selling results (in the first quarter of 2003) (number)

12 750

7 000

Price of a full page advertisement (colour) in z (included 22% VAT, gross)

3 782
(editorial part)
3050
(advertisements part)

4 880

CPT (z) gross

296.62
(editorial part)
239.21
(advertisements part)

697.14

Explanation:
CPT (Cost Per Thousand) – indicator showing cost of reaching 1000 client with a spot
Source: [2].

The advertising activity of seed companies in the investigated magazines was different in the individual months (fig. 25). The number of the emitted advertising spots was closely connected with the area taken by them. The highest number of advertising spots was published in the first quarter of the year (mainly in March), although in January there were big differences amongst the investigated years. This came from the fact that in January the plant protection programmes are usually published. If it is connected with vegetables, it increases the number of advertising spots from seed companies in the given issue. Since April, in turn, the number of advertising spots from seed companies in HO and OWK was decreasing. The lowest number of them was found for the period from May until August. In September, the number was going up again, and then followed by a drop in October and November. In December, the number of advertising spots increased again. The number and size of advertising spots was closely correlated with the seasonal pattern of selling seeds. This, in turn, is affected by sowing times of the individual vegetable species and vegetable groups. The increase of advertising activity of seed companies in September is connected with the biggest International Agro-horticultural Fair “POLAGRA” – usually taking place in October.

Fig. 2. Monthly distribution within a year of number of advertising spots and articles in horticultural magazine “Has這 Ogrodnicze” in the years 2001-2003
Source: own research.

Fig. 3. Monthly distribution within a year of area of advertising spots and articles in horticultural magazine “Has這 Ogrodnicze” in the years 2001-2003
Source: own research.

Fig. 4. Monthly distribution within a year of number of advertising spots and articles in horticultural magazine “Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty” in the years 2001-2003
Source: own research.

Fig. 5. Monthly distribution within a year of area of advertising spots and articles in horticultural magazine “Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty” in the years 2001-2003
Source: own research.

The recorded increase of advertising activity in the studied magazines in December and January was connected, in turn, with Christmas and New Year wishes submitted with spots of the biggest foreign seed companies. They were then public relation orientated activities.

DISCUSSION

One of the elements affecting seasonal pattern of advertising spots of vegetables and seed companies in the Polish horticultural magazines was a seasonal activity of seed companies as mentioned earlier by Ho逝bowicz and Bralewski [6]. This is in agreement with the opinion of Kall [7], who claims that a seasonal product should also be advertised in a seasonal pattern with a main point before the selling peak. Kotler et al. [8] say that most firms adjust the emission of advertising spots in magazines to their cycle of product selling giving them therefore a seasonal pattern.

The seed companies advertising spots, i.e. without advertising any products, also affected the seasonal pattern of advertising spots and their emission in December and January. They were connected then with Christmas and New Year wishes sent to the companys clients. As mentioned by Sabat and Miernik [9] this kind of advertising spot is emitted to create a positive picture of the company. It comes then from public relations activities and it enforces the company’s competitiveness to other companies.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the research, following conclusions can be formulated.

  1. The most important magazines orientated for professional gardeners, when taking under consideration presence on the press market, number copies and vegetables crops as one of the main topics were: “Has這 Ogrodnicze” (“HO”) and “Owoce Warzywa Kwiaty” (“OWK”).

  2. Advertising spots and articles of seed companies were published there in a seasonal pattern.

  3. Number and size of advertising spots and articles was closely correlated with the season of selling seeds and the time of the International Agro-horticultural Fair “POLAGRA”.

  4. The public relations activities undertaken by the biggest foreign seed companies and their representatives also affected the seasonal pattern of advertising activity in horticultural magazines.


REFERENCES

  1. Anonymous, 2003. Raport Agencji Martin & Jacob [Martin & Jacob’s Agency Report]. www.agrims.pl/page?type=report&id=53&config=false&rs=line 07.10.2003 [in Polish].

  2. Bobi雟ki M., 2003. Prasa ogrodnicza i rolnicza [Horticultural and agricultural press]. Press 9, 58-59 [in Polish].

  3. Bralewski T.W., Ho逝bowicz R., 2005. Importance of different forms of advertising spots in promotion activities of Polish horticultural seed companies. EJPAU Horticulture http:/www.ejpau.media.pl/volume8/issue4/art-05.html

  4. Bralewski T.W., Ho逝bowicz R., 2005. The role of horticultural magazines in the promotion of vegetables cultivars on the Polish market. Abstracts 10th International Scientific Conference ENVIRO, 20 April 2005, Nitra, Slovak Republic, 21.

  5. Ho逝bowicz R., 1999. Marketing nasion [Seed marketing]. Wyd. Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu [in Polish].

  6. Ho逝bowicz R., Bralewski T.W., 2004. Strategie rozwoju ogrodniczych firm hodowlano-nasiennych po przystapieniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej [Strategy of developing horticultural breeding and seed production companies after Poland has jointed the European Union]. Folia Univ. Agric. Stetin., Agricultura 239(95), 127-130 [in Polish].

  7. Kall J., 1998. Reklama [Advertising]. Polskie Wyd. Ekonomiczne, Warszawa, 109 [in Polish].

  8. Kotler Ph., Armstrong G., Saunders J., Wong V., 2002. Marketing. Podr璚znik europejski [Marketing. European Mannual]. Polskie Wyd. Ekonomiczne, Warszawa, 880-881 [in Polish].

  9. Sabat M., Miernik M., 2001. Pozycjonowanie przedsi瑿iorstwa poprzez kreatywne kszta速owanie wizerunku rynkowego [Positioning of a company through creative building a market image]. Zesz. Nauk. Wy窺zej Szko造 Ekonomii i Administracji w Kielcach 4, 79-95 [in Polish].

  10. Wiktor J. W., 1998. Zagadnienie: Koszt na 1000 (Problem: Cost Per Thousand – CPT). In: Leksykon marketingu [The Marketing Leksicon]. Eds. J. Altorn i T. Kramer. PWE, Warszawa, 125 [in Polish].


Tomasz W. Bralewski
Department of Horticultural Seed Science and Technology,
August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan, Poland
Baranowo, 62-081 Przezmierowo, Poland
email: twbseed@interia.pl

Roman Ho逝bowicz
Department of Horticultural Seed Science and Technology,
August Cieszkowski Agricultural University of Poznan, Poland
Baranowo, 62-081 Przezmierowo, Poland

Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.