EJPAU, 2019, Volume 22, Issue 2

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22(2) #01
25 Apr 2019
Geodesy and Cartography
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The source of deformations in one of the most densely populated residential areas of the city of Zonguldak is studied using InSAR techniques. During the investigations, it is discovered there had been mining acitivites underway under the city during the time period that the InSAR images were taken. Approximately 8 years of this time period is examined, and in total a maximum 41 cm subsidence is discovered in the area of coal mining. In addition, the vertical motion coefficient for the area of interest is calculated as 1.6.

22(2) #02
24 May 2019
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Global consumption steadily increases due to development of aquaculture but also more efficient fisheries sector. Therefore, fish processing plants and ultimately consumers face products from new fish species which significantly differ in case of their nutritional values, technological or culinary properties. The aim of the study was to randomly collect specimens of bigeye sea perch, Helicolenus barathri; New Zealand sole, Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae; white bass, Morone chrysops; thicklip grey mullet, Chelon labrosus and ridge scaled rattail, Macrourus carinatus and provide multidimensional characteristics i.e. species authentication, proximate assessment, structure and texture analysis as well sensory evaluation. Study confirmed authenticity of all fish samples and new DNA barcodes were introduced into database of fish profiles. Chemical composition of fillets differed significantly among species, and the unfavourable nutritional values had ridge scaled rattail, bigeye sea perch and New Zealand sole which had unfavorable fatty acid profile, high atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indexes, and low hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic acids ratio. On the other hand, fillets of freshwater white bass had the best PUFA:SFA ratio,  and favourable TI and AI indexes from the consumer’s health point of view. Moreover, fillet of the white bass was selected by panellists as the most desirable. Structural analysis also revealed different degree of undesirable changes in fillets observed as breakdown of myofibrils and connective tissue. Multidimensional analysis characterized randomly selected sample and provided a set of useful information both for customers and fish processing sector.

22(2) #03
24 May 2019
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In the times of short product life cycle on the confectionery and snacks market a quick reaction of producers to the changing needs and expectations of consumers remains essential. Such a strategy can support manufacturers in winning a strong and stable market position. The Author’s attention was attracted by a new category of confectionery, being the response to consumers’ demand – i.e. chocobakery. The purpose of the article was to present its characteristics and to examine the extent of its adjustment to consumer expectations. The subject literature and the data obtained from key confectionery manufacturers in Poland were used in the article. Product innovations were defined in the first part of the article. Next Polish confectionery and savoury snacks market, consumer behaviour and trends on the chocolate market were presented. Then the category of chocobakery was characterised. Finally, the new category of confectionery was assessed and further research directions were indicated, allowing for its better adjustment to consumer expectations.

22(2) #04
24 May 2019
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Effectiveness and, by extension, profitability of the second-generation bioethanol production process is dependent on pretreatment. The aim is to develop an inexpensive, easy-to-conduct pretreatment that would highly increase hydrolysis efficiency and, at the same time, maximize the fermentable sugar yield and minimize substrate loss. In this work, optimal conditions of low-cost miscanthus and sorghum biomass pretreatment were determined and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analysis (BET) was used to characterize specific substrate area. Microscopic structure changes of both substrates were demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. Lignin content in pretreated materials was determined according to NREL procedure. While alkali pretreatment had minor effects on the structure, acid pretreatment resulted in the emergence of noticeable pores and fissures in the surface of miscanthus and sorghum fibres. The increase in specific surface area and substrate porosity improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. However, the decrease of lignin content turned out to be a key factor in hydrolysis efficiency enhancement.

22(2) #05
18 Jun 2019
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Several protocols of DNA extraction from the soil with commercial kits and CTAB based method were tested to develop relatively easy procedure of reliable molecular detection of B. japonicum introduced with coated soybean seeds.
Method of DNA extraction clearly influences the quality and quantity of DNA and thus directly affects the results of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) assays and the possibility of bacteria identification. Obtaining reliable results in PCR does not guarantee the same results in qPCR with SYBR Green. The use of DNA extraction commercial kits and successful DNA extraction may in some cases lead to inability to detect bacteria, although it is present in the sample. To avoid such problems, the extraction methods should be selected and, if necessary, modified individually for different soil samples. In this study, DNA extraction with Genomic MINI AX Soil Spin showed to be the most appropriate method for obtaining reliable results in both PCR and real-time PCR. However, for real-time PCR, strong dilution of DNA and the addition of reagents that relieve inhibition of amplification were necessary.

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