Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
Volume 22
Issue 2
DOI:10.30825/5.ejpau.173.2019.22.2 , EJPAU 22(2), #03.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume22/issue2/art-03.html


Krzysztof Podsiadły
Wrocław University of Economics, Department of Labour and Capital, Poland



In the times of short product life cycle on the confectionery and snacks market a quick reaction of producers to the changing needs and expectations of consumers remains essential. Such a strategy can support manufacturers in winning a strong and stable market position. The Author’s attention was attracted by a new category of confectionery, being the response to consumers’ demand – i.e. chocobakery. The purpose of the article was to present its characteristics and to examine the extent of its adjustment to consumer expectations. The subject literature and the data obtained from key confectionery manufacturers in Poland were used in the article. Product innovations were defined in the first part of the article. Next Polish confectionery and savoury snacks market, consumer behaviour and trends on the chocolate market were presented. Then the category of chocobakery was characterised. Finally, the new category of confectionery was assessed and further research directions were indicated, allowing for its better adjustment to consumer expectations.

Key words: product innovation, confectionery market, consumer inspired, chocolate, chocobakery.


As a result of globalization processes and high competition on the confectionery and snacks market the product life cycle has significantly shortened. For this reason, the enterprises operating in this branch of food industry have to react quickly to both the changing needs and expectations of consumers. Producers have to be innovative as the implementation of different innovation type results in winning the market advantage, which in a long run allows an organization to develop and maximize its profits. In the case of confectionery and snacks the leading market trends are as follows: health, nature, product transparency and usage convenience. The development of a new category of confectionery called “chocobakery”, which offers an opportunity of combining the pleasure of tasting chocolate with the usage functionality and health oriented benefits of cookies is the response to the aforementioned trends.

The purpose of this article is to characterize the new category of confectionery as well as verify the degree of its adjustment to consumer expectations. To carry out the set objective the article was divided into four parts, which respectively:

The article is based on the subject literature review and the data obtained from the key confectionery producers in Poland. The empirical research method was based on comparative analysis of the nutritional value of products from the new category of confectionery against the standard values of the most popular types of chocolate bars produced by the same manufacturer.


The Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter is considered the precursor of the idea of innovation, who at the beginning of the twentieth century defined the concept of innovation as launching new products, applying new methods of their production, winning new markets, obtaining new sources of raw materials or introducing the new organization of industry. He also developed a model for creating innovations based on supply. This model puts emphasis on the functioning of research and development centres in the enterprises implementing innovations [19].

The subject literature offers various - different from each other - approaches to the definition of product innovation [13]. For one of the researchers a product innovation is the organization’s effort invested in developing completely new products or services, or a new application of the existing products and services [6]. For another one, a product innovation is recognized as any change in a product that significantly increases its competitiveness and attractiveness [9]. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, a product innovation is the implementation of a product or a service that is either new or significantly improved in terms of its characteristics as well as potential applications. An improvement is approached as a change in the technical specification of the product, its components and materials used in production, service improvement or the alteration of other functional characteristics. The authors of the Oslo Manual also attract attention to the implications of product innovations related to knowledge and technology. A product innovation takes place only when new knowledge is used, new technologies are applied or the existing knowledge and the new technology or the new knowledge and the existing technology are combined [12]. Due to a different approach to the definition of product innovation, one can also come across several different classifications of product innovation. The first of them is based on various criteria related to a product itself, a consumer or a market. On the basis of the above criteria six categories of new products were defined [2]:

Another approach to the classification of new products is presented by Philip Kotler, who allows introducing changes not only within the product itself, but also making alterations in the packaging, the applied design and the reduction of production costs. The aforementioned author distinguishes the following types of product innovations [8]:

According to next approach, product innovations can be divided into [22]:

Nowadays, product innovation represents an important factor influencing enterprise development. It not only determines the competitive capacity, but also stimulates the market by creating new demand. In the early models of innovation processes the emphasis was primarily on the important role of scientific and technical achievements. In these models innovative products are generated as a result of research and development achievements, which have a direct impact on the development of industrial technology. The above mentioned impact resulted in the emergence of new products or processes on the market. Such model is referred to as push innovation model, in which the end user of either the product or the process plays a passive role and the market remains the addressee of the enterprise scientific and technical research results. In this model the demand factors are ignored, whereas the supply factors play the key role [7]. It was not until later that the importance of market needs was identified. It was also found that 75% of successful innovations emerged on the market as a response to current market needs. They were defined as innovations pulled by the market and developed as a result of the correctly defined and analysed consumer needs [17]. For this reason, both previous types of innovation models were combined into one third-generation coupling model, in which technical possibilities were combined with market needs. The approach to innovation models evolved from the combined third-generation system through a parallel model, emphasizing the cooperation of an enterprise with customers and suppliers, up to the current integrated system based on network connections, which is flexible and based on the system of customer combined response and continuous innovation [14]. Therefore, the enterprises which do not invest in development are deemed to suffer slow extermination, because product innovations created taking into account market needs and in response to consumers’ needs are crucial for achieving success. Enterprises can compete only when they develop the greatest possible number of unique products offered and, in addition, tailored to individual consumer requirements. It is important to respond swiftly to consumers’ needs, because each product represents “the sum of tangible and intangible usability contained in it” [22].


The confectionery and snack market is characterised by the most intense development among all types of food products in Poland. The products covered by this market can be divided into four categories:

Currently the value of confectionery and snack market amounts to PLN 17.3 billion and during the twelve months, since September 2016, this market increased by 5.8% [18]. The reasons of such situation are related to Poland’s key position as the manufacturer of this type of products and in the internal potential created by consumers. Owing to foreign investments, the confectionery industry represents one of the main sectors in the food industry in Poland. It covers about 350 entities, of which the enterprises with foreign capital make about 75% [21]. As of 2015, this sector provided employment to approx. 29 thousand employees and the total value of confectionery manufactured in the respective year in Poland amounted to EUR 2.62 billion. In the years 2012 – 2016 the export of confectionery increased by 79.5%, from the level of EUR 1.66 billion to EUR 2.98 billion, making Poland the eighth largest exporter of these products worldwide, with the share of 4.8%. In the same period imports amounted to only 1.02 billion, which ranked Poland the fourteenth among the largest importers, with the share of 1.7% [4]. The aforementioned data confirm the positive trade balance of confectionery industry.

The vast majority of confectionery and snacks are produced in Poland and therefore it is possible to sell them on the domestic market. Short distribution channels and relatively low production costs allow offering products at affordable prices, along with maintaining an attractive margin level. For this reason, Polish consumers have access to a wide range of confectionery and snacks. The non-chocolate product category is of the highest significance on the market in terms of value, with its share at the level of 39%. The second ranked category covers chocolate confectionery, with the share of 29.7%, but this particular category is characterised by the highest growth rate, amounting to 6.4% in the period between September 2016 and September 2017. The record increase in this category was recorded regarding products included in the platform of figures and chocolate sets – 13.9% as well as chocolate bars – 7.7%. The remaining ones were characterised by an increase of 4.9% in the case of pralines and 3.1% for countlines. This category features the highest growth dynamics as a result of the continuous consumption increase related to chocolate confectionery in Poland. In the early nineties of the 20th century, the consumption of chocolate and confectionery products amounted to 0.36 kg per capita, whereas in 2013, according to the Association of Polish Producers of Chocolate and Confectionery Products, it was 3.2 kilograms [11], and in 2016 it reached its record level of 6.3 kilograms per capita [23]. In spite of such a high consumption growth, this category is still characterised by a growth potential.

So far, the highest consumption of chocolate confectionery has been recorded in Switzerland – 8.8 kg per capita and in Germany – 8.4 kg per capita [1]. Based on these data it can be inferred that chocolate consumption in Poland may increase by further 30%. The only question remains the time in which this level of chocolate confectionery consumption will be reached. The attractiveness of the chocolate confectionery category is the reason of high competition among the entities involved in these products’ manufacturing. The list of key chocolate confectionery produces in Poland includes as follows: Colian, Frrero, Jutrzenka, Lindt, Lotte Wedel, Mars, Mondelez, Nestle, Terravita, and Wawel. Depending on the product platform, the market share of individual entities keeps changing.

Fig. 1. Poland chocolate bars market
Source: Author's compilation based on the Nielsen report for Mondelez. 2017 [3]

Fig. 2. Poland chocolate countlines market share
Source: Author's compilation based on the Nielsen report for Mondelez. 2017 [3]

Fig. 3. Poland chocolate pralines market share
Source: Author's compilation based on the Nielsen report for Mondelez. 2017 [3]

Due to such market segmentation manufacturers take actions aimed at increasing their share in the sales of chocolate confectionery on particular platforms. These activities are focused on increasing the attractiveness of the offered products by adjusting them to the needs and requirements presented by consumers as well as the trends occurring on the chocolate confectionery market.


According to the research carried out by the Institute Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung in 2015, 70% of the consumed confectionery and snacks were purchased by the consumers themselves, and only in 30% of cases they were offered them as a treat or received them as a gift [5]. The decision to buy such products is made under an influence of a given moment, thus they are included in impulse products. Based on the research conducted in 2017 by Skilltelligence, it appears that up to 87% of consumers are guided by the taste of a product when choosing confectionery. Next in line is the product price (59%) and its brand (50%) [16]. The primary stimulating agent in the consumption of chocolate products is the desire to enjoy oneself. Consumers predominantly identify pleasure with the product itself and its physiological impact as well as its sensual perception. However, a particular food product perception is also influenced by the factors related to [20]:

Having analysed the promotional campaigns of confectionery manufacturers it is noticeable that the moment of pleasure is shown in contrast to everyday life and regular activities, thus taking on new dimensions. The objective of such campaigns is to maximize the experience of pleasure by combining the spectrum of emotions based on the immersion in technology, the greed for experiencing certain incentives, involvement and being a part of community. For this purpose manufacturers construct their “own temples”, create communities around the idea and stimulate a constant tension. Such “own temples” represent places where a consumer is supposed to experience more pleasure, to taste, to feel and to live through the moment. For this reason, special showrooms are provided by the confectionery producers in which consumers can find out more about the product, the raw materials used in production and the technological process. In addition, an individual flavour composition can be created by a visitor of such places for increased pleasure and enjoyment. Manufaktura Czekolady opened by one of the leading chocolate producers is an example of this approach or, to a smaller extent, providing stands in stores allowing the composition of one’s own chocolate candy or praline mixes. Another component takes the form of establishing communities around the brand, which is supposed to combine the pleasure of the product taste and acting in good cause. This initiative was taken up by the leading Polish chocolate producer, who started a competition supporting the Academy of the Future, which helps children with difficulties in achieving better learning results. The final component of the campaign is creating continuous tension consisting in combining taste, fashion and experiment, an example of which is the campaign of a new pink chocolate developed by one of the manufacturers [10].

The above-described activities are combined with the major trends occurring on the chocolate market. The growing awareness of consumers enhances the interest in products which are environmentally friendly and also convenient in usage. For this reason, the labels on chocolate confectionery are specifically designed to remain visually appealing and simultaneously as simple, clear and transparent as possible. Moreover, the signs of social or charity organizations can be found on them, which indicates that the product has been manufactured in accordance with the defined rules, or part of its sales profit is allocated to the budgets of charity organizations. The certificates of Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and UTZ CERTIFIED are among the most popular signs.

Consumers also give up the compromise between health and pleasure. Health is their priority. It mainly results from the new nutritional habits, frequently promoted in the media, primarily the social media. For this reason, manufacturers launch products based on natural ingredients and enrich them with healthy added extras, thus increasing their nutritional value. This trend is also noticeable in the case of chocolate confectionery. Products with high cocoa content, enriched with minerals and vitamins or with reduced content of fat and sugar are gaining popularity. In the years 2011–2012, the number of products with the inscription “no added sugar” increased by as much as 130% on the chocolate market [15]. Customers are also more interested in the products containing whole grains or having higher fibre content. Chocolate confectionery addressed to consumers suffering from food allergies, e.g. those allergic to gluten, soya, dairy products or some preservatives are also in higher demand. Over the recent five years the number of chocolate confectionery free from lactose has tripled worldwide. Chocolate products are more and more often manufactured in accordance with the requirements of specific diets, such as e.g. vegetarianism or veganism, and also religious requirements related to kosher or halal rules. Another important trend is the development of chocolate confectionery with increased protein content, dedicated to people practicing sports, thus characterised by higher energy use – protein bars containing alternative plants such as peas, nuts or cereal grains. New products are also continuously sought for to deliver new sensual experiences by combining savoury and sweet flavours, different chocolate consistencies, colours or shapes. As a result of higher life intensity and limited free time an increased role of snacks in everyday diet can be observed on the confectionery market. For this reason, product availability, its consumption comfort and the portion size also represent important factors while making the purchase. To sum up the above presented discussion, it can be concluded that the crucial incentives for the chocolate market offer development are as follows: health, nature, product transparency and convenience in use.


An excellent response to consumer behaviour on the chocolate market is the new category of confectionery called “chocobakery”. It is developed by virtually all key producers of chocolate products operating on the Polish market. This category is a combination of a biscuit with a smooth and creamy consistency of chocolate. In the products covered by this category a biscuit has a functional role, i.e. satisfies light hunger and is a source of good ingredients, such grains rich in nutrients valuable for the body. Chocolate, in turn, is a synonym of pleasure and reward. Owing to these two elements a perfect combination meeting both expectations of consumers is obtained. Through the synergy of functionality and pleasure in consuming such products it does not result in qualms of conscience.

Enriching a chocolate bar by adding a biscuit is the example of such synergy used by one of the major confectionery manufacturers. A standard chocolate bar divided into portions (squares) takes the form of full chocolate, chocolate with added extras or filled chocolate. In the case of chocobakery each chocolate bar has an added miniature version of one of the popular biscuits. In comparison to chocolate confectionery, the consumption of biscuit-and-chocolate products results in the changed the perception of taste. It is more involving through a complex product combining many components and characterised by many structures. Owing to such approach a consumer is provided with a product not only offering new taste experiences, but also a healthier one.

In order to check the new chocolate bar design impact on nutritional value, the comparison of nutritional values in 100 g plain chocolate, chocolate with incusions, filled chocolate and chocobakery type of chocolate was performed.

Table 1. Nutritional value of different types of 100 g chocolates produced by the same manufacturer
Nutritional value Plain chocolate Chocolate with inclusions Chocolate with strawberry filling Chocobakery with a biscuit and milk filling Chocobakery with a biscuit Chocobakery with a cracker
energy value
[kcal/100 g]
530 543 560 518 512 522
[g/10 0g]
29 32 35 27 26 28
saturated fatty acids
[g/100 g]
18 17 20 16 15 16
[g/100 g]
59 54 55 60 63 60
including sugars
[g/100 g]
58 53 54 49 49 50
[g/100 g]
1.8 2.5 0.9 2.2 1.9 1.9
[g/100 g]
6.3 7.1 5 6.2 6.4 6.3
[g/100 g]
0.37 0.34 0.4 0.6 0.55 0.75
Source: Author’s compilation based on the nutritional information tables

The main founds out on the carried out nutritional values comparison of chocolate bars produced by this manufacturer were presented in below tables.

Table 2. Main positive nutritional value changes between chocobakery type of chocolates and plain chocolate
Nutritional value Chocobakery with a biscuit and milk filling Chocobakery with a biscuit Chocobakery with a cracker
saturated fatty acids
[g/100 g]
-12,5% -20,0% -12,5%
carbohydrates including sugars
[g/100 g]
-18,4% -18,4% -16,0%
[g/100 g]
18,2% 5,3% 5,3%
Source: Author’s compilation based on the nutritional information tables

Table 3. Main positive nutritional value changes between chocobakery type of chocolates and chocolate with inclusions
Nutritional value Chocobakery with a biscuit and milk filling Chocobakery with a biscuit Chocobakery with a cracker
saturated fatty acids
[g/100 g]
-18,5% -23,1% -14,3%
Source: Author’s compilation based on the nutritional information tables

Table 4. Main positive nutritional value changes between chocobakery type of chocolates and chocolate with strawberry filling
Nutritional value Chocobakery with a biscuit and milk filling Chocobakery with a biscuit Chocobakery with a cracker
-29,6% -34,6% -25,0%
saturated fatty acids
-25,0% -33,3% -25,0%
59,1% 52,6% 52,6%
19,4% 21,9% 20,6%
Source: Author’s compilation based on the nutritional information tables

The above data indicate a positive – health oriented – impact of the chocobakery product, as compared against the traditional chocolate. Unfortunately, in some cases the nutritional value results are worse for the product in the chocobakery category. The most significant was higher salt content in chocobakery bars comparing to all traditional types of chocolate bars. It was also found that the content of fibre in a chocobakery bar was lower compared to a chocolate bar with inclusions.

Another product type of the new category is the non-chocolate confectionery with an added significant amount of chocolate to improve its taste experience. This type of confectionery includes all kinds of biscuits and wafers enriched with chocolate, with its content in a product ranging from 20 to even 60%.

The last type of innovative chocobakery product is a combination of a biscuit and a popular nut cream. In this case, apart from the new taste experiences and improved product nutritional value we are also provided with the packaging improvement. So far, nut cream was consumed at home, because it was sold in various jar sizes and serving it required preparation. After adding the biscuit component, the product can be consumed outside the home. In the first case, the biscuit plays a functional role allowing the cream consumption by replacing a teaspoon (the biscuit takes the form of sticks for taking the cream out from a small container). In the second, a thin crisp wafer is a form of the cream packaging.


As a result of developing an innovative product platform, the chocolate confectionery manufacturers responded positively to market trends and consumer expectations. Owing to such an approach they face an opportunity to increase significantly their advantage on the chocolate market. The combination of biscuits’’ functionality with the pleasure of consuming chocolate is further enhanced by joining the images of recognized chocolate brands and biscuits, which have so far remained the separate “items” in the producers’ portfolios.

On the basis of the performed comparative analysis, covering the nutritional value of products from the new category of confectionery with the standard products, it was found that the new products meet the expectations of consumers in terms of improved health functions, however, only in specific cases and regarding the selected nutritional values. While the energy value or the content of saturated fatty acids was reduced and the fibre content was increased compared to a full or filled chocolate bar, the salt content was at the same time higher in the discussed cases. The products included in the new category did not do so well when compared to chocolate with added extras. This proves the need for conducting further research focused on the functional properties’ improvement of the new category of confectionery.

The challenge faced by the described industry is to find functional materials allowing further improvement of recipes for non-chocolate components in the chocobakery platform, to improve the nutritional value of finished goods, for example in terms of salt content, and also the ones which could further enhance their positive impact by increasing the convenience function of the products included in the new category of confectionery. The further research in this should be carried out and support by the manufacturers. Only new functional ingredients can improve the nutritional value of the confectionery goods and reduce the negative impact of their consumption for health.


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Received: 21.01.2019
Reviewed: 24.04.2019
Accepted: 20.05.2019

Krzysztof Podsiadły
Wrocław University of Economics, Department of Labour and Capital, Poland
118/120 Komandorska Street
53-345 Wrocław
email: krzysztof.podsiadly@ue.wroc.pl

Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.