Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2017
Volume 20
Issue 4
Topic:
Agronomy
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Płaza A. , Makarewicz A. , G±siorowska B. , Cybulska A. , Górski R. , Rz±żewska E. 2017. MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN POTATO TUBERS AS AFFECTED BY MANURING WITH UNDERSOWN CATCH CROP, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM, EJPAU 20(4), #16.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume20/issue4/art-16.html

MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN POTATO TUBERS AS AFFECTED BY MANURING WITH UNDERSOWN CATCH CROP, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM

Anna Płaza, Artur Makarewicz, Barbara G±siorowska, Anna Cybulska, Rafał Górski, Emilia Rz±żewska
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The paper presents results of research conducted from 2008 to 2011 to determine the effect of manuring with undersown catch crop and production system on the microelement content in potato tubers. The following two factors were examined in the study: I. manuring with undersown catch crop (control – no undersown catch crop manure, farmyard manure, white melilot, westerwolds ryegrass, white melilot – mulch, westerwolds ryegrass – mulch), II. production system: integrated and organic. Spring triticale cultivated for grain was undersown with catch crops which, after incorporation, were followed by table potato. The following contents were determined in potato tubers: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The highest nitrogen content was recorded in the tubers of potato following white melilot mulch, and the highest phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents in the tubers of potato following autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system.

Key words: macroelements, potato, manuring, undersown catch crop, mulch, production system.

INTRODUCTION

Macroelements serve as building materials and participate in the regulation of biochemical processes [1, 9, 22, 23]. Macroelements content in potato tubers is affected by agrotechnological factors, including fertilisation [10, 13, 15, 17]. Farmyard manure is a basic natural manure applied in potato cultivation. Declining farmyard manure production and the development of integrated and organic potato cultivation encourage farmers to introduce more catch crops into rotation. Undersown catch crops are the cheapest source of biomass [2, 13, 14]. They are recommended for cultivation in both the integrated and organic production system. There seems to be insufficient information in literature on the effect of catch crops on the potato tuber content of macroelements. Hence, the need arises to conduct this type of research. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effect of manuring with undersown catch crops as well as production system on the potato tuber content of macroelements.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

A field experiment was carried out in 2008–2011 at the Zawady Experimental Farm owned by Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities. The soil of the experimental site was Albic Luvisol, IVa soil valuation class, with neutral pH and an average available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents. Humus content was 1.38%. The experiment was a split-block arrangement with three replicates. The following two factors were examined in the study: I. manuring with undersown catch crop (control – no undersown catch crop manure, farmyard manure (30 t·ha-1), white melilot (seed sowing rate 26 kg∙ha-1), westerwolds ryegrass (seed sowing rate 20 kg∙ha-1), white melilot – mulch (seed sowing rate 26 kg·ha-1), westerwolds ryegrass – mulch (seed sowing rate 20 kg∙ha-1)), II. production system: integrated and organic.

In autumn, the yield of undersown catch crop fresh matter (including the root matter in the 0–30 cm soil layer) was determined in each plot. The average yields in the integrated and organic production system, calculated across three years were, respectively, 27.5 and 22.9 t∙ha-1 for white melilot, and 35.4 and 27.6 t∙ha-1 for westerwolds ryegrass. Spring triticale cultivated for grain, which preceded potato, was undersown with the catch crops. In the integrated production system, mineral fertilisers were applied to the whole experimental area in early spring. Fertiliser rates per 1 ha were as follows: 90 kg N, 36.9 kg P and 99.6 kg K. The rates were adjusted to soil fertility and anticipated yield levels. In the plots which were ploughed before winter, fertilisers were mixed with the soil by means of a cultivator with a harrow attached to it in the spring. In mulched plots, a disc harrow was used and followed by a cultivator. In the organic production system, mineral fertilisation was replaced with farmyard manure at the rate of 30 t∙ha-1 which was applied to the whole experimental area prior to sowing of spring triticale undersown with catch crops. Potatoes were planted in late April and harvested in mid-September. In the integrated production system, a mixture of mechanical and chemical measures was used to control weeds, pests and diseases. Prior to emergence, potatoes were hilled and harrowed every 7 days, and sprayed with a mixture the herbicides Afalon 50 WP + Reglone Turbo 200 SL (1 kg + 1 dm3·ha-1) just before emergence. Colorado potato beetle was controlled by means of two applications of Fastac (0.1 dm3·ha-1) and potato blight using two applications of the fungicide Ridomil MZ 72 WP (2 dm3∙ha-1). In the organic production system, weeds were mechanically controlled, Colorado potato beetle was controlled using two applications of Novodor SC (2.5 dm3·ha-1) and late potato blight using two applications of the fungicide Miedzian 50 WP (4 kg·ha-1). During potato harvest, tuber samples were taken from each plot in order to determine macroelements contents. The following methods were used to determine macroelements in the dry matter of potato tubers: the Kjeldahl method for nitrogen, vanadium-molybdenum method for phosphorus, flame photometry method for potassium and calcium and atomic absorption spectrometry for magnesium.

Data obtained for each of the characteristics studied was analysed by means of ANOVA suitable for the split-block mathematical model. When significant sources of variation existed, means were separated using Tukey's test.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of the experimental factors and their interaction on the potato tuber content of nitrogen (Tab. 1). Manuring with undersown catch crop biomass and farmyard manure significantly increased nitrogen content in potato tubers compared with control. Similar research by Gianquinto and Bona [4], Płaza [12], Różyło and Pałys [16], Pikki et al. [11], Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21] as well as Wierzbicka [20] demonstrated that all types of manuring contributed to a significant increase in the potato tuber content of nitrogen. In the experiment discussed here, the highest nitrogen content was recorded in the tubers of potato manured with white melilot, irrespective of its application form. Also Ceglarek and Płaza [2] as well as Płaza [12] reported an increase in nitrogen content following undersown catch crop incorporation. In the present study, nitrogen content in the tubers of potato manured with westerwolds ryegrass left as mulch on the soil surface until spring was similar to the level recorded in potato following farmyard manure. Nitrogen content in potato tubers was significantly lower compared with control tubers only in plots where westerwolds ryegrass had been incorporated in the spring. But still, the nitrogen concentration was significantly lower compared with control tubers. This finding agrees with results of study by Majchrowska-Safarin [10] who demonstrated that nitrogen content was the lowermost in the tubers of potato harvested from either non-fertilised control plots or units where only mineral fertilisation had been applied. Also production system affected nitrogen content in potato tubers. Nitrogen concentration was higher in the integrated rather than organic production system. Also studies by Hunter et al. [7] Wszelaki et al. [22], Sawicka and Barbaś [17], Hargeaves et al. [6] revealed a higher nitrogen content in the tubers of potato cultivated in the integrated production system. In the present study, there was found an interaction which indicates that the highest nitrogen content was recorded in the tubers of potato manured with white melilot mulch in the integrated production system. The content was the lowest in control potato tubers in the organic production system.

Table 1. Nitrogen content in potato tubers (means across 2009–2011) [g·kg-1 d.m.]
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Means
Integrated
Organic
Control
13.63
13.12
13.68
Farmyard manure
14.83
14.34
14.59
White melilot
16.54
15.44
15.99
Westerwolds ryegrass
14.21
13.65
13.93
White melilot – mulch
17.66
15.94
16.80
Westerwolds ryegrass – mulch
15.06
14.64
14.85
Means
15.32
14.52
LSD0.05
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Interaction: AxB = ns; BxA

0.27
0.15
0.40

Phosphorus content in potato tubers was significantly affected by the experimental factors and their interaction (Tab. 2). Manuring with undersown catch crops and farmyard manure increased phosphorus content in potato tubers compared with control tubers. Also Płaza [12], Kozera et al. [9] as well as Zarzecka and Gugała [23] pointed out that standard fertilisation contributed to phosphorus accumulation in potato tubers. According to Blecharczyk et al. [1] and Majchrowska-Safarin [10], an application of farmyard manure and spent mushroom compost increased phosphorus content in potato tubers. In the experiment discussed here, phosphorus concentration was the highest in the tubers of potato manured with white melilot, whether it was used as mulch or not. It agrees with findings reported by Płaza and Ceglarek [2], Płaza [12] as well as Kołodziejczyk and Szmigiel [8] who demonstrated that an application of catch crop or vermicompost increased phosphorus content in potato tubers. In the present study, phosphorus concentration was significantly lower only in the tubers of potato manured with westerwolds ryegrass, regardless of its application form, compared with potato following farmyard manure. However, this phosphorus concentration was still significantly higher compared with control tubers. Also Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21] as well as Majchrowska-Safarin [10] demonstrated that all types of organic manuring increased phosphorus content in potato tubers. Production system significantly affected phosphorus content in potato tubers, too. Similarly to reports by Hajslowa et al. [5], Sawicka and Barbaś [17], Food et al. [3] and Wierzbicka [20], a higher phosphorus concentration was found in the tubers of potato cultivated in the integrated (conventional) versus organic production system. In the experiment discussed here, an interaction was found indicating that the highest phosphorus content was determined in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system; it was the lowest in control potato tubers in the organic production system.

Table 2. Phosphorus content in potato tubers (means across 2009–2011) [g·kg-1 d.m.]
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Means
Integrated
Organic
Control
2.546
2.157
2.352
Farmyard manure
3.114
2.513
2.814
White melilot
3.526
2.846
3.186
Westerwolds ryegrass
2.835
2.314
2.575
White melilot – mulch
3.212
2.658
2.935
Westerwolds ryegrass – mulch
2.687
2.225
2.456
Means
2.987
2.452
LSD0.05
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Interaction: AxB = ns; BxA

0.069
0.056
0.082

Statistical analysis indicated that potassium content in potato tubers was significantly affected by the experimental factors and their interaction (Tab. 3). Manuring with undersown catch crops significantly increased potassium content in potato tubers when compared to control potatoes. Research by Płaza [12], Prośba-Białczyk and Tajner-Czopek [14], Blecharczyk et al. [1] and Majchrowska-Safarin [10] revealed a higher potassium content in the tubers of potato manured with both organic and mineral fertilisers compared with mineral fertiliser only. In the present study, the highest potassium concentration was recorded in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot. Kołodziejczyk and Szmigiel [8] noted that potassium content was the highest in the tubers of potato following catch crop and vermicompost. Production system had a significant effect on the potato tuber content of potassium as well. Its concentration was higher in the tubers of potato cultivated in the integrated production system, which corresponds with findings by Sawicka and Barbaś [17] as well as Hargeaves et al. [6]. Also in the study by Różyło and Pałys [16], potassium content was much higher in potato tubers harvested in the integrated rather than organic production system. In the experiment reported here, an interaction was found indicating that the highest potassium content was noted in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system, it being the lowest in organic control tubers. On the contrary, Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21] stated that potassium content was higher in the tubers of potato following organic manure application.

Table 3. Potassium content in potato tubers (means across 2009–2011) [g·kg-1 d.m.]
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Means
Integrated
Organic
Control
15.31
13.92
14.62
Farmyard manure
16.69
15.63
16.16
White melilot
17.14
15.89
16.52
Westerwolds ryegrass
16.33
15.25
15.79
White melilot – mulch
16.59
15.39
15.99
Westerwolds ryegrass – mulch
15.90
14.96
15.43
Means
16.33
15.17
LSD0.05
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Interaction: AxB = ns; BxA

0.31
0.22
0.46

Calcium content in potato tubers was significantly affected by the experimental factors and their interaction (Tab. 4). Catch crop and farmyard manure application enhanced calcium content in potato tubers compared with control, which agrees with findings reported by Płaza [12]. In other study, Różyło and Pałys [16] found insignificant differences in the tuber content of calcium as affected by fertilisation they applied. In the present study, the highest calcium content was noted in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot. Also Kołodziejczyk and Szmigiel [8] reported the highest calcium content in the tubers of potato following catch crops. In the experiment reported here, calcium content in the tubers of potato cultivated after an incorporation of white melilot mulch differed insignificantly from the concentration of this element in potato following farmyard manure. In plots manured with westerwolds ryegrass, regardless of the form of the catch crop application, calcium content in potato tubers was significantly lower compared with potato following farmyard manure. However, here, too, calcium concentration in potato tubers was significantly higher compared with potatoes cultivated after farmyard manure incorporation. Production system significantly affected calcium content in potato tubers, it being higher in potato tubers harvested in the integrated production system. A similar relationship was noted by Sawicka and Barbaś [17], Sayed et al. [18] and Wagh et al. [19]. Zarzecka and Gugała [23] as well as Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21] found a lower calcium content in organic tubers. In the experiment reported here, an interaction was confirmed which indicates that calcium content was the highest in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system, it being the lowest in organic control tubers.

Table 4. Calcium content in potato tubers (means across 2009–2011) [g·kg-1 d.m.]
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Means
Integrated
Organic
Control
0.646
0.454
0.550
Farmyard manure
1.124
1.017
1.071
White melilot
1.317
1.024
1.171
Westerwolds ryegrass
0.982
0.688
0.835
White melilot – mulch
1.123
0.825
0.974
Westerwolds ryegrass – mulch
0.746
0.543
0.645
Means
0.990
0.759
LSD0.05
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Interaction: AxB = ns; BxA

0.095
0.073
0.107

Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant influence of the experimental factors and their interaction on magnesium content in potato tubers (Tab. 5). Manuring with undersown catch crop and farmyard manure increased magnesium content in potato tubers. The highest concentration of this element was determined in potato following white melilot which was either autumn- or spring-incorporated. This finding agrees with results reported by Płaza [12] as well as Kołodziejczyk and Szmigiel [8]. They observed that magnesium concentration was higher in the tubers of potato following catch crop and vermicompost incorporation. By contrast, Zarzecka and Gugała [23] as well as Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21] demonstrated that magnesium content was similar in potato tubers produced in systems involving an application of various fertilisers. In the study discussed here, magnesium concentration in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated westerwolds ryegrass differed insignificantly from values determined for potato following farmyard manure, it being significantly lower in the tubers of potato following westerwolds ryegrass mulch. Production system significantly affected magnesium content in potato tubers. The concentration of this element was higher in potato tubers harvested in the integrated rather than organic production system. Also Różyło and Pałys [16], Wierzbicka and Trawczyński [21], as well as Wszelaki et al. [22] reported lower magnesium content in organic tubers. In the present study, there was found an interaction indicating that the highest magnesium content was noted in the tubers of potato manured with autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system, it being the lowest in organic control tubers.

Table 5. Magnesium content in potato tubers (means across 2009–2011) [g·kg-1 d.m.]
Manuring with undersown catch crop  (A)
Production system (B)
Means
Integrated
Organic
Control
0.564
0.242
0.403
Farmyard manure
0.853
0.456
0.655
White melilot
1.106
0.735
0.921
Westerwolds ryegrass
0.752
0.451
0.602
White melilot – mulch
0.876
0.647
0.762
Westerwolds ryegrass – mulch
0.663
0.346
0.505
Means
0.802
0.480
LSD0.05
Manuring with undersown catch crop (A)
Production system (B)
Interaction: AxB = ns; BxA

0.104
0.086
0.122

CONCLUSIONS

  1. Potato manuring with white melilot ploughed under in autumn resulted in the highest N, P, K, Ca, Mg content in tubers.
  2. Potato tubers contained more macroelements in the integrated rather than organic production system.
  3. The highest nitrogen content was recorded in the tubers of potato manured with white melilot mulch. Phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were the highest in the tubers of potato following autumn-incorporated white melilot in the integrated production system.

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Accepted for print: 30.12.2017


Anna Płaza
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland
B. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
email: plaza@ap.siedlce.pl

Artur Makarewicz
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland
B. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

Barbara G±siorowska
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland
B. Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

Anna Cybulska
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland


Rafał Górski
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland


Emilia Rz±żewska
Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Natural Science, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland


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