EJPAU, 2016, Volume 19, Issue 1

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19(1) #01
11 Jan 2016
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In Iran, pistachio is affected by fruit Endocarp Lesion disorder, which occurs as a result of calcium deficiency. To investigate the effects of different calcium treatments on this disorder and some nut characteristics in Pistacia vera cv. Akbari, an experiment was conducted using completely randomized design with five treatments in three replications on 20-year-old trees in Rafsanjan. The treatments included T1 – control treatment, T2 – calcium sulfate (gypsum), T3 – calcium sulfate and calcium chelate foliar spray, T4 – calcium sulfate and calcium nitrate and T5 – calcium sulfate, calcium nitrate and calcium chelate foliar spray. The results showed that different calcium treatments had a significant effect on the percentage of undamaged fruits and damaged fruits by the disorder. The highest and lowest percentage of undamaged and damaged fruits was observed in T5. In evaluating nut characteristics, the highest percentage of splitting nuts, the least percentage of non-splitting nuts and immature nuts, and the least number of grains per one ounce were obtained in T5. In measuring leaf nutrient contents, the least amount of Mg, the highest amount of Ca and the highest ratio of Ca/Mg in leaves were observed in T5. The high ratio of Ca/Mg reduced Mg poisoning and also the Endocarp Lesion. As shown in the results, application of calcium sulfate (gypsum), calcium nitrate and calcium chelate foliar spray (T5) can be more favorable than other treatments, in reducing Endocarp Lesion disorder and improving nut characteristics in Pistacia vera cv. Akbari.

19(1) #02
13 Jan 2016
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In this research, regeneration of Valeriana officinalis via shoot apex was studied. Shoot apex explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of NAA and BAP. The highest callus induction percentage was obtained in the medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA. Multiple shoot were induced from the shoot apex explant of V. officinalis by culturing them in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The explants also induced root formation in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l of NAA. The highest fresh and dry weight of callus was observed when 0.5 mg/l BAP was combined with 0.5 mg/l NAA. The addition of BAP up to 1 mg/l to the medium containing different concentrations of NAA lead to the production of callus which is compact rather than friable. This result suggests that this methodology can be applied for rapid propagation of this species.

19(1) #03
13 Jan 2016
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The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of the live diet and pellet diet on the survival and growth rates of the stocking material of nase fry. The rearing was performed in two variants: live-fed group (LFG) and pellet-fed group (PFG) – larvae fed on prepared food starter. The LFG were reared on similar food that occurred in a stream designed for the stocking in each week of the experiment (zooplankton, chironomids larvae and periphyton). In the beginning of rearing, the PFG were characterized by higher values of total length, mass than those from the LFG. After supplementation with periphyton for the LFG, the values of total length and mass of the LFG were higher than those of the PFG. Our results show that the rearing of the nase fry on natural food may lead to them obtaining satisfactory growth rates.

19(1) #04
14 Jan 2016
Agricultural Engineering
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The aim of this manuscript was to study the effects of extrusion variables (screw speed and barrel temperature) on the functional properties of corn-sesame extruded products. Extrudates products were obtained with the addition of sesame seed at the levels of 0–30% to the mixture of corn grits and flour using a twin-screw extruder. Box–Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) was applied to optimize the effects of formulation and extrusion parameters. We found that sesame seed level factor had an effect on water absorption index (WAI). WAI was reduced up to 15% increase in sesame seed. However, a higher level of sesame seed resulted in raising WAI. The water solubility index of extrudate decreased significantly (p<0.05) with sesame seed level and increased with screw speed. The oil absorption index also reduced as sesame seed increased but increased with the increment of screw speed. In general, the incorporation of a sesame seed to corn extrudate resulted in the lower functional properties

19(1) #05
15 Jan 2016
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In the lower reaches of large rivers considerable densities of zooplankton, including large crustaceans, can successfully develop. We studied food composition and selectivity of juvenile Perca fluviatilis. The material was collected near the left bank of the western branch located in the estuarine part of the Odra. Quantitative and qualitative food composition of perch fry caught in June and July was assessed based on the content of their alimentary tracts. Also zooplankton samples were collected from the water column.

Both in June and July, copepods prevailed in the plankton of the shore zone in the river. In the diet of fry in June, however, the most common were cladocerans, while in July – copepods again. In the diet, the group of cladocerans were dominated by female Daphnia of 1.11 to 1.50 mm in length, whereas in situ smaller Daphnia prevailed. Among copepods, in June, mature stages were most common; in July, however, juvenile copepodits prevailed. Feeding juvenile perch have a narrow food selectivity. They preferred Daphnia and females of large copepods, avoiding Bosmina, Diaphanosoma, small Thermocyclops, and copepodits.

19(1) #06
25 Jan 2016
Animal Husbandry
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FSHB gene is considered as a marker for reproductive traits in human as well as in domestic animals. The aim of this study was to estimate associations between polymorphism in FSHB gene and reproductive traits in Polish Landrace breed (n=260) and Polish Large White × Polish Landrace crossbreed (n=381) sows. The following traits were analyzed: total number of piglets born (TNB), number of piglets born alive (NBA) and number of piglets weaned (NW). The polymorphism in FSHB gene was determined by PCR-RFLP method using HaeIII restriction enzymes. Mixed linear model  was applied for association analysis which considered effects of genotype, litter order and year season. Two alleles of FSHB gene were identified – A and B with following frequency: 0.058 and 0.942 (Polish Landrace), 0.150 and 0.850 (Polish Large White × Polish Landrace) respectively. The distribution of genotypes was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both of analyzed herds. Analysis of relationship between FSHB/HaeIII polymorphism and reproductive traits in sows showed that genotype BB was favorable for all analyzed traits in first and second parity but differences were small and not confirmed statistically. The significant effect (P≤0,01) of litter order on analyzed traits was however observed.

19(1) #07
27 Jan 2016
Civil Engineering
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The paper presents results of experiments on the effect of superplasticizer addition on rheological and strength properties of cement paste destined for injection applications. Tested samples were produced with the CEM I 42.5 R Portland cement. The water-to-cement ratio varied from 0.35 to 0.55 and the amount of plasticizing agent varied from 0 to 3% by cement mass. The investigations were performed with the coaxial rotating viscotester. The strength of the matured samples was tested in accordance with valid building codes. The experiments showed that addition of the liquefying admixture effects in simplification of the rheological structure of paste. The strength of matured paste samples with the superplasticizer addition was considerably increased.

19(1) #08
10 Feb 2016
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A field study was conducted in years 2011–2013 in two different places in Poland. Four potato cultivars (Flaming – very early, Viviana – very early, Vineta – early, Gustaw – mid early) were grown under organic and integrated systems. During the full development stage, i.e. end of June (for the early varieties) and 2 weeks later (for later ones) total above-ground biomass was assessed. The tuber yield and share of tuber in total plant biomass was calculated during the harvest. It was stated that the highest influence on assimilates distribution to usable and non-usable part of plant had the site of growing and the cultivar. The farming system and the weather conditions during growing season did not significantly influence the share of tuber in total plant biomass. There was significant interaction between the farming system and the site of growing regard to total biomass and tuber yield. Under organic system on lighter soil the total biomass and the yield was slightly lower than on heavier soil, but under integrated system the relation was diverse. Relatively small diversity of cultivars regarding the share of tubers in the total biomass was noticed.

19(1) #09
22 Feb 2016
Food Science and Technology
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Abnormal eating habits are very frequent among ballet dancers and female athletes. Recent studies have suggested that students of dietetics also fall into this group.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the eating behavior and nutritional habits of young ballet dancers, athletes, and students of dietetics – all classes of women considered to have a specific risk of developing an eating disorder.

31 well-trained female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 y) from various sports clubs in Poznań, 21 ballet dancers (17.4 ± 0.9 y), and 30 students (20.5 ± 2.4 y) from Poznań University of Life Sciences completed the study. The nutritional status of the participants was evaluated by analyzing body composition using the BIA method (adipose tissue percentage (FM%, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM%, kg). Moreover, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), the Youth Healthy Eating Index (YHEI), and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) were employed to describe eating behavior. Energy balance and energy availability were also assessed.

Significant differences were observed between the groups. The group of ballet dancers had the lowest body weight, BMI, and FM%. Compared to athletes and dietetics students, this group also scored the highest on the TFEQ and had the most negative energy balance, the lowest energy consumption, and the lowest YHEI score. The FFQ questionnaire results indicate that students of dietetics prefer high nutritional value products.

Improved knowledge of the impact of nutrition on health can affect our daily diet. The results presented in this paper, unlike those of other authors, do not unequivocally indicate that students of dietetics have an increased risk of developing an eating disorder.

19(1) #10
26 Feb 2016
Veterinary Medicine
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Onion (Cynara scolymus) and globe artichoke (Allium cepa) fruitswere used as natural sources for isolation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Chemical analyses of onion and globe artichoke dry matter revealed the major component was carbohydrates (91.40 and 85.82% respectively). FOS from Onion (FOS1) andglobe artichoke(FOS2) were isolated (45.70 and 42.91% of total carbohydrates respectively). Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed the presence of kestose, nystose, and fructofuranosyl nystose as major components of FOS1 or FOS2. Cytotoxic activities of FOS1 and FOS2 were examined in vitro using colon (HCT 116), liver (HEPG2), cervical (HELA) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. FOS1 or FOS2 showed a higher percentage cell death of HCT-116 carcinoma cell lines than the other cell lines, indicating promising anti-tumorigenic properties, and demonstrating their direct effect on colon cancer cell proliferation. A marked reduction was observed in the levels of ALP (62 and 61%), ALT (70 and 64%) and γ-GT (73 and 65%) in sera of rat groups that first received FOS1 or FOS2 respectively, compared to 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) control rats, indicating protective effect of both FOSs. Insignificant change was observed in AST level. Significant decreases in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LP) in sera of rats administered with FOS1 or FOS2 compared to those DMH control rats. Highest significant decrease in the level of LP was observed in sera of rats FOS2 administered more than those of FOS1.The anticancer activity was evaluated through determination of CEA and C19.9 in DMH-induced colon cancer rat groups treated with either FOS1or FOS2 compared with the carcinogenic control rat group (DMH). Therefore, FOS1or FOS2 is more effective for inhibiting DMH-induced colon cancer. The present results showed the activity of GSH-R was increased in liver (56 and 51%) and kidney (54 and 34%) of rat groups treated with FOS1or FOS2, respectively, compared to those of DMH control rats. GSH-P activity was also increased in liver (61 and 58%) and kidney (52 and 51%). FOS1or FOS2 did not modify GSH-T activity in rat groups. FOS1or FOS2 exhibited a higher increase of SOD activity in liver (67 and 61%) and kidney (59 and 54%), respectively, as compared to those of DMH control rats. The most significant findings of the present study is that the FOS1 or FOS2 (200 mg/kg body weight) have shown a beneficial effect not only on colon cancer but also on antioxidant enzymes activity in DMH - induced colon cancer in rats, as well as protected the cell against DMH oxidative stress by antagonizing DMH toxicity. According to these observations, the use of FOS (FOS1or FOS2) can be recommended as anticancer and antioxidant agents.

19(1) #11
09 Mar 2016
Agricultural Engineering
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The purpose of this study was to study the effects of N fertilizer topdress application with timing based on plant demands and using variable rates technology for spreading. The experiment was carried out on two commercially managed fields of 13 (F1) and 19 (F2) hectares. On both fields, phosphorus and potassium were applied uniformly. As far as nitrogen is concerned, half of the required dosage was spread uniformly on both fields in the early spring. On field F1 the second half was arbitrarily split into two rates and applied uniformly at the beginning of two growth stages – shooting and earing. On field F2 the dosage of N fertilizer, applied at the same time as stated above, was based on plant nutrient requirement and was spread using the spatially variable technique. After harvest, soil sampling on both fields for mineral nitrogen residues was carried out. It was found that the topdressing application of the N fertilizer, based on greenness measurements, resulted in 28.2 and 20.8% decrease of the required dosage at the shooting and earing growth stages accordingly, and in lower nitrogen residues, by 19.8–56.1%, in examined layers, and yield higher by ca 27%, in comparison with the arbitrary determined and uniformly spread rates.

19(1) #12
14 Mar 2016
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The paper reviews the farming system definition, methodology of farming system classification (typology) at farm or an area unit (mostly NUTS 5; NUTS – Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level using different types of data (survey, census and remote sensing data), and importance of this typology. The diversity of farming systems is a crucial issue in several studies related to agro-ecosystem and environmental management, policy implementation and rural development. In performing the farming system typology within a farmland area, hierarchical classification of respective units has been adopted in which the three following levels of the classification are considered: 1) the main type level, 2) the more oriented type level, and 3) the specific type level. Study of the farming systems typology at a spatial scale can be performed using expert or statistical methods. The last are mainly used to distinguishing specific types of farming systems within a more oriented farming system. The sampling of farms considered for the farming system typology may rely on geographical or administrative stratification. Data on the sampled farms are collected through surveys of farmers or national and EU (European Union) databases (e.g., the FADN database; FADN – Farm Accountancy Data Network). For farming system diversity assessment at an area unit level, data should be aggregated at the respective area unit scale. Expert methods are based on knowledge of guide researchers or agricultural extension experts supported by land cover maps and recorded databases. Farming system types are inferred from the statistical characteristics of the sampled farms or the entire set of the area units, obtained through multivariate methods such principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Assessment of farming system diversity and typology have become increasingly important in recent years because of their usefulness in developing flexible policies for public interventions and for the effective planning, discussion and support of proper pathways for the development of multifunctional and sustainable agricultural and rural areas. Comprehensive approaches that take into consideration various sources of data and track spatio-temporal changes in farming systems are highly valuable tools for achieving the sustainable development of rural areas.

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