Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2014
Volume 17
Issue 3
Topic:
Veterinary Medicine
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Kirkiłło-Stacewicz K. , Brudnicki W. , Macherzyńska A. , Nowicki W. , Skoczylas B. , Wach J. 2014. CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ARTERIES EXTENDING FROM THE ASCENDING AORTA IN BROILER CHICKEN (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS), EJPAU 17(3), #04.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume17/issue3/art-04.html

CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ARTERIES EXTENDING FROM THE ASCENDING AORTA IN BROILER CHICKEN (GALLUS GALLUS DOMESTICUS)

Krzysztof Kirkiłło-Stacewicz1, Witold Brudnicki1, Anetta Macherzyńska2, Włodzimierz Nowicki1, Benedykt Skoczylas1, Jan Wach1
1 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
2 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the work was to conduct studies of morphological features of arteries extending from the ascending aorta in broiler chicken. Analysis and comparison of the variability was made to contribute to the knowledge of the cause of cardiovascular problems in birds. The study was conducted on 45 broiler chicken. Material was obtained as dead individuals as a result of chance. Arteries were filled with latex by a medical syringe through the left ventricle of the heart. The reconstituted material was fixed for 4 months in 5% formalin solution. Arteries were prepared and photographed. There were two arteries extending from brachiocephalic trunk in the basic pattern: the subclavian artery and the common carotid artery. Arteries separate from the brachiocephalic trunk at the same height. In broiler chicken a tendency was noticed to produce a common departure within the brachiocephalic trunk (right and left). Independent departure of the brachiocephalic trunk from the ascending aorta was similar to the anatomical norm in domestic fowl.

Key words: broiler chicken, arteries, aortic arch.

INTRODUCTION

There are many works on the description of the aortic arch morphology in different species of animals  – in domestic rabbit and brown hare arteries were described by Brudnicki et al. [3] and Nowicki et al. [17]; Berg and Smollich [2], Frese [4], Krahmer [15], Smollich and Berg [20] in dog, Sizinger and Hohenecker [19] in rat. Fowl, both domestic and wild, is also an object of research. There are studies on the anatomy of the vascular system in domestic fowl, in which Khan and Asaduzzaman [13] describe the distribution of different types of ovarian arteries in domestic fowl. Ocal et al. [18] have studied the aorta in chickens, and Lindsay and Smith [16] coronary arteries of domestic chicken. Studies on the main arteries extending from the heart in birds has been announced by Glenny [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. These studies, however, do not describe the variability within the aortic arch, but only specific arteries are characterized and the place of departure within the head and neck. Intensive poultry production, unfortunately, is linked to the maintenance of fowl in high density, controlled by human through environmental and nutritional conditions. Very modern, fast-growing broiler chickens have serious problems with normal cardiac function. The cause of many failures in flocks of modern and fast growing broiler chicken is sudden death syndrome (the syndrome of sudden cardiac death) caused by heart infirmity without former symptoms [14]. The aim of the work is to describe the structure, course and variability of arteries extending from the ascending aorta in broiler chicken.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted on 45 broiler chickens from the farming factory ”Drobex”, aged 3–4 weeks since it was the most available research material. Material was obtained as dead individuals as a result of chance, the cause of death was not clarified and analyzed. Arteries were filled with latex by a medical syringe through the left ventricle of the heart. The reconstituted material was fixed for 4 months in 5% formalin solution. The aorta was dissected and specific sections were isolated: right and left brachiocephalic trunk, right and left subclavian artery,  right and left common carotid artery, right and left external carotid artery, as well as the right and left internal carotid artery. Variation in the departure of branching was examined  for each section. Anatomical terms were accordant with Nomina Anatomica Avium [1]. There have been descriptions of variability of main arterial branches extending from the ascending aorta.

RESULTS

There were found two ways of arteries departure from the ascending aorta. Right and left brachiocephalic trunk departed directly in most cases (58%, n=26) (Fig.1). This scheme was assessed as the basic, approximate to the anatomical norm. In the lower frequency (42%, n = 19) (Fig. 2) a departure from the ascending aorta was observed with shorter aortic trunk, which then underwent division into right and left artery at the same height. There were two arteries extending from brachiocephalic trunk in the basic pattern. The first one was the subclavian artery and the other one was common carotid artery. Arteries separate from the brachiocephalic trunk at the same height. This arrangement was typical for 84% of cases (38 individuals) (Fig. 3). In 16% of cases (7 individuals) (Fig. 4) a variability was observed manifested by the departure of the common carotid artery from the subclavian artery on the right and left side. All the tested specimens were characterized by a symmetrical arrangement of individual arteries extending from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right and the left side. From the left and right brachiocephalic trunk, both on the right and the left side two arteries were separated: the right and left subclavian artery and the right and left common carotid artery. The departure of these arteries occurs at different distances depending on the individual and the body side.

Fig. 1. Independent departure of the right and left brachiocephalic trunk in broiler chicken (1 – aortic arch; 2 – right brachiocephalic trunk; 3 – left brachiocephalic trunk)

Fig. 2. Common departure of the right and left brachiocephalic trunk in broiler chicken (1 – aortic arch; 2 – common departure of the brachiocephalic trunk; 3 – right brachiocephalic trunk;  4 – left brachiocephalic trunk)

Fig. 3. Division of the brachiocephalic trunk into common carotid artery and subclavian artery in broiler chicken (1 – aortic arch; 2 – brachiocephalic trunk; 3 – subclavian artery; 4 – common carotid artery)

Fig. 4. Departure of the common carotid artery from the subclavian artery in broiler chicken (1 – aortic arch; 2 – brachiocephalic trunk; 3 – subclavian artery; 4 – common carotid artery)

DISCUSSION

The basic pattern was the even, right and left brachiocephalic trunk that departed independently from the ascending aorta, typical of 58% of the cases. There was very short, common departure for the brachiocephalic trunk and the division into right and left artery was observed at the same height. This arrangement was observed in 42% of cases. From each right and left brachiocephalic trunk two arteries were separated: subclavian artery and the common carotid artery. This division occurred at the same height at 84% of individuals. All tested specimens were characterized by a symmetrical way of departure for specific arteries from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right and on the left side. In 16% of cases variability was stated, manifested by the departure of the common carotid artery from the subclavian artery on the right and the left side. Observed variability concerned the common departure for the right and the left brachiocephalic trunk (42%). In birds anatomical variability within the circulatory system is due to evolutionary development of the trunk and neck, for example it refers to the order Caprimulgiformes, where variation of the division and departure for carotid and trunk arteries was stated. There is tendency to change the position of sternoclavicular arteries from the lateral position between the common carotid artery and axillary artery to the thoracic trunk [11]. In Gaviiformes there were observed individual differences in the type and arrangement of blood vessels and "aves laevocarotidinae" was noted [7]. In humming birds (Trochilidae) one may observe a high degree of uniformity in the distribution of the arteries, while Apodidae indicated a significant tendency to "aves laevocarotidinae” [11]. The researchers described the circulatory system in penguins formulating the conclusion that the scheme of arrangement of the carotid arteries and the arteries in the trunk is very similar and shows no statistically significant variation [5]. This also applies titmouse (Paridae) [6]. In Galliformes the right arch arises from the right innominate artery immediately after the bifurcation of the root. Passing dorsally through the right pulmonary artery it heads in a rear slanted way in proportion to the center line to the dorsal aorta. In the further course unnamed arteries divide to form the common carotid artery and subclavian artery [8]. All these observations seem to confirm Wiland’s conclusions [21, 22] that the variability of branches within the cardiovascular system, and the observed variations have a finite and determinable range that within the population should not exceed diversification achieved through phylogenetic development. The study of variation within the aortic arch in domestic fowl confirm the findings of other researchers that the variability within the circulatory system of the population is widespread and occurs in all the studied animals. These results seem to confirm the thesis that animals kept in closure lose the ability to create multiple variants of distribution and the way of departure for the main arteries of the heart, neck and head. Understanding the structure and function of the circulatory system can contribute to the development of new and effective methods of breeding and rearing of poultry. Assessing factors that affect vascular variation may reduce losses associated with sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. In broiler chicken a tendency was noticed to produce a common departure within the brachiocephalic trunk (right and left).
  2. There were observed two arteries extending from brachiocephalic trunk in the basic pattern: the subclavian artery and the common carotid artery. Arteries separate from the brachiocephalic trunk at the same height.
  3. Independent departure of the brachiocephalic trunk from the ascending aorta was similar to the anatomical norm in domestic fowl.
  4. The variability of branches within the cardiovascular system, and the observed variations in broiler chicken have a finite and determinable range that within the population.

REFERENCES
  1. Baumel J.L., 1979. Nomina Anatomica Avium: An annotated anatomical dictionary of birds. Academic Press.
  2. Berg R., Smollich A., 1962. Systematische Untersuchungen über die  Aufzweigung der Aa. subclaviae bei Canis familiaris. [Systematical studies on subclavian arteries in Canidae]. Monatshefte für Veterin., 17, 307–315 (in German).
  3. Brudnicki W., Macherzyńska A., Nowicki W., 2007. Variation in the arteries of the aortic arch in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), EJPAU, 10(1), 03.
  4. Frese K., 1962. Über Anomalien des Aortenbogens beim Hund. [Anomalies of the aortic arch in dog]. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, 9, 787 (in German).
  5. Glenny F.H., 1944. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves V – Sphenisciformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 44 (1), 47–54.
  6. Glenny F.H., 1945. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XXI. Passeriformes – Paridae, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 45 (1), 19–21.
  7. Glenny F.H., 1946. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XVII. Colymbiformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 63 (2), 215–218.
  8. Glenny F.H., 1951. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XVIII. Psittaciformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 51 (6), 347–352.
  9. Glenny F.H., 1951a. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XII. Galliformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 51 (1), 47–54.
  10. Glenny F.H., 1952. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XVI. Charadriiformes, part 2. The Ohio Journal of Science, 52 (6), 314–316.
  11. Glenny F.H., 1953. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XX. Caprimulgiformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 53 (6), 356–357.
  12. Glenny F.H., 1953a. A systematic study of the main arteries in the region of the heart – Aves XIX. Apodiformes, part 1. The Ohio Journal of Science, 53 (1), 367–369.
  13. Khan M., Asaduzzaman M., 1998. Distribution of different types of ovarian arteries in the domestic hen. Veterinarski Arhiv., 68, 149–153.
  14. Konarkowski A., 2011. Syndrom nagłej śmieci kurcząt brojlerów, cz. 1. [The syndrome of sudden broiler fall, part 1]. Polskie Drobiarstwo, 10, 42–43 (in Polish).
  15. Krahmer R., 1969. Über Gefäβanomalien bein Hund (Canis familiaris). [Anomalies of arteries in dog (Canis familiaris)]. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 124, 496–503 (in German).
  16. Lindsay F.E.F., Smith H.J., 1965. Coronary arteries of Gallus domesticus. American Journal of Anatomy, 116 (1), 301–314.
  17. Nowicki W., Brudnicki W., Skoczylas B., Jabłoński R, Wach J., 2011. Variation in the branches of aortic arch in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus  cuniculus L., 1758). [Zmienność odgałęzień łuku aorty u dzikiego królika (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. 1758)]. Acta Scientarium Polonorum. Medicina Veterinaria, 10 (1), 25–34 (in Polish).
  18. Ocal M.K., Mutus R., Corekci I., Daglioglu S., 1997. A quantitative study of the aorta of the chicken Gallus domesticus. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 26:3, 203–205.
  19. Sinzinger H., Hohenecker J., 1972. Arcus aortae bei Nagern (Rodentia). [Aortic arch in rodents (Rodentia)]. Anatomischer Anzeiger, Bd.,132, 341–347 (in German).
  20. Smollich A., Berg R., 1959. Beobachtungen über das Verhalten der Äste des Aortenbogens bei Canis familiaris, Felis domestica und Sus scrofa domesticus. [Aortic arch in dogs, domestic cats and wild boars]. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 107, 309 (in German).
  21. Wiland C., 1974. Zmienność tętnic podstawy mózgowia i łuku aorty u norki amerykańskiej. [Variability of the brain base arteries and aortic arch in American mink]. BTN Prace Wydziału Nauk Przyrodniczych, S-B, 20, 79 (in Polish).
  22. Wiland C., 1974a. Czynniki wpływające na zmienność tętnic podstawy mózgowia u ssaków. [Factors affecting the variability of the brain base arteries in mammals]. Przegląd Zoologiczny, XVIII:3 (in Polish).

Accepted for print: 15.07.2014


Krzysztof Kirkiłło-Stacewicz
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: krzysztof.stacewicz@o2.pl

Witold Brudnicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Anetta Macherzyńska
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting,
Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardynska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
Phone/Fax: 052 3749510

Włodzimierz Nowicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: wlodek_novika@interia.eu

Benedykt Skoczylas
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Jan Wach
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
Phone: 052 374 95 10
email: janwach82@poczta.onet.pl

Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.