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Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.

Volume 14
Issue 4
Topic:
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
. , EJPAU 14(4), #14.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume14/issue4/art-14.html


 

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine an influence of multicomponent preservative added to complete mixtures with lowered protein level for pregnant and lactating sows on nitrogen emission with faeces and physiological indices. The research material were 42 sows divided into 3 nutritional groups. The level of protein and amino acids in the control group was in accordance with recommendations included in Polish standards. The level of protein in experimental groups was lowered of 10 and 20%, and level of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan was complemented to the level of the control group. The preservative in friable form was added to all mixtures for pregnant and lactating sows in amount of 0.8%. All sows during pregnancy and lactation were fed individually. Samples of faeces and urine from 8 sows from each group were collected at 60th and 105th day of pregnancy. The content of dry matter, nitrogen, fibre and ash was determined in faeces samples and nitrogen content was determined in urine. Blood from the jugular vein was collected from 24 sows (8 from each group) on 14th day of lactation, and protein and fat transformation indices and minerals content were determined in serum. The obtained results of faeces and urine analysis prove that sows from the experimental groups released lower amount of nitrogen by 4 and 7% in faeces at day 60th, and of 10 and 12% in urine. During high pregnancy period (105th day) they released less nitrogen of 4 and 8% in faeces, and of 13 and 30% in urine. A decrease in total protein level and urea, and an increase in cholesterol level was observed in blood serum of both experimental groups sows. Protein level in mixtures fed did not influence neither the content of minerals in blood serum nor haematological indices of blood.

Key words: .

INTRODUCTION

Cereal grain that is naturally contaminated with fungi and bacteria is the basic feed material of complete mixtures for pigs manufacturing [10, 18, 2, 20]. In favouring conditions (temperature and humidity) that microorganisms develop intensively and contribute in physical and chemical changes taking place in feed, and animals fed with such a mixture are characterised by considerably lower production and health indices [8, 9, 22, 29].

Mycotoxins produced by fungi, except an overall toxic activity, may also exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic activity and may cause disorders in the proper functioning of reproductive system [26, 27, 28].

The proliferation of bacteria and fungi, including toxin forming ones, may be inhibited by an addition of suitable chemical preparations referred as preservatives [11, 12, 21, 31].

The components of feed preservatives are the most often short-chain organic acids and their salts that also influence alimentary tract microflora and thus health status and improved nutrients utilisation from mixtures fed. Urbańczyk and Hanczakowska [29] demonstrated that fumaric acid added to the mixture for piglets in amount of 3% influenced a decrease in a number of anaerobic bacillus in coecum from 1.7 × 107 to 1.2 × 105, and a decrease in Escherichia Coli number of 42%. Also an increase in ammonia nitrogen, specific protein and volatile fatty acids level was observed.

It was demonstrated in the study conducted on piglets and fattening pigs [6, 11, 12, 29] that preservatives added to mixtures influenced an increase in body weight and higher feed intake. The preservatives assessed did not however affect the digestibility of basic nutrients and nitrogen retention.

There is a lack of Polish study concerning the efficiency of preservatives as feed additives in mixtures for gestation and lactating sows.

The efficiency of specially composed preservative in the present study was assessed in sows feeding with mixtures of lowered protein level.

The content of total protein and exogenous amino acids in complete mixtures for sows during pregnancy and lactation period needs to be optimised not only from the economic reasons, but physiological and environmental as well.

Based on numerous feeding experiments [3, 13, 14], it has been demonstrated that the amount of nitrogen retained in pig organisms is only 40 – 48% with respect to the amount consumed with the feed. The remaining 52% of the nitrogen is expelled with faeces and urine, presenting a considerable threat to the environment.

Nitrogen content in pig faeces depends mainly on the level and quality of protein in the given feed. As demonstrated in studies conducted on fattening pigs [3, 5], the emission of nitrogen into the environment may be reduced by lowering the total protein level in the feed, but with a concomitant enlargement of the level of exogenous amino acids added in a crystalline form.

There is a lack of study concerning the influence preservative addition and limited protein levels in mixtures for sows on the amount of nitrogen expelled into the environment and physiological indices.

The aim of the present study was to determine the amount of nitrogen expelled into the environment and physiological indices of gestation and lactating sows fed with complete mixtures with preservative addition and lowered protein level of 10 and 20%.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study was conducted on POL-LEAN Ltd. pig farm in Łosice. The experimental material consisted of 42 sows (PLW × PL) that after insemination were divided into 3 groups, 14 animals in each, taking into consideration the farrowing sequence and past reproductive performance.

The division of sows into 3 nutritional groups was due to total protein level in complete mixtures of LP type for low gestation sows, and in LK type mixtures for high gestation and lactating sows.

Group I – control, protein and amino acids level recommended in Polish Standards for Pigs Feeding.

Group II – protein level lowered of 10%, and lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan level complemented to the level recommended in Polish Standards for Pigs Feeding.

Group III – protein level lowered of 20%, and lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan level complemented to the level recommended in Polish Standards for Pigs Feeding.

The preservative in friable form was added to complete mixtures for low-gestation, high-gestation and lactating sows in amount of 0.8%. The preservative was manufactured by "PROVIT" Ltd. in Kutno according to an established recipe. The active components of the preservative were following acids: formic, propionic, phosphoric, citric and benzoic. Phosphoric, formic and propionic acids were deposited on highly absorptive silica, and next were combined with powdered citric and benzoic acid.

The complete mixtures for all groups were manufactured from the same components according to an established recipe. The basic ingredients of the mixtures were ground barley and wheat, dried sugar beet pulp, wheat bran, post extraction soya bean meal and rapeseed oil. Total protein content of the experimental groups mixtures was reduced by decreasing the percentage of soya bean meal. Optimized amino acids, such as lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophane were balanced to the level recommended in Polish Standards for Pigs Feeding [23], by adding them in a crystalline form. Minerals and vitamins were supplemented to the recommended level by the addition of 0.3% premix, manufactured by Cargill Ltd. in Kiszkowo, according to the established recipe.

The components used for the production of complete mixtures were subjected to chemical analyses in which the content of basic nutrients was determined. The analyses were conducted according to standard methods [1] in a laboratory of the Cargill Poland Ltd., and amino acid composition of feed ingredients used for mixtures manufacturing was determined using chromatographic method in Degussa AG Hanem-Wolfgang laboratory in Germany. On the basis of the analyses results, the optimalisation of nutrients in complete mixtures for each groups was done according to experimental assumptions. The energetic value of the mixtures was calculated on the basis of own analysis of components and digestibility indices, and formulae included in Polish Standards for Pigs Feeding [23] and in CVB [4].

The detailed composition of complete mixtures for gestation and lactating sows and nutrients content in 1 kg of that mixtures are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Composition and the content (g.kg DM-1) of nutrients in mixtures for gestation sows

Ingredients

Groups

I
control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Barley meal
Oat meal
Dry beet pulp
Extracted soybean meal
Wheat bran
Rapeseed oil
Preservative
Pasture chalk
Monocalcium phosphate
Pasture salt
Premix
Phyzyme XP 4000 TPT
L-lysine 98
L-threonine
D1-methionine
Tryptophan

31.1575
25.00
25.00
8.70
5.00
2.30
0.80
1.05
0.45
0.23
0.30
0.0125
-
-
-
-

36.2575
25.00
25.00
4.50
5.00
2.10
0.80
1.05
0.49
0.23
0.30
0.0125
0.15
0.06
0.03
0.02

39.5375
25.00
25.00
-
5.00
2.00
0.80
1.06
0.52
0.23
0.30
0.0125
0.30
0.13
0.07
0.04

In total

100.00

100.00

100.00

Nutrients content in 1 kg of mixture
(g.kg DM-1)

Net energy kcal (g.kg DM-1)
Metabolic energy MJ (g.kg DM-1)
Total protein
Crude fibre
Crude fat
Crude ash
Ca
P
Na
Lysine
Methionine
Methionine + Cystine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Izoleucin
Valine
Arginine

 
 

2366
13.75
147.7
109.0
53.9
63.1
9.1
5.0
1.7
7.3
2.3
5.2
5.5
1.7
5.6
7.4
8.75

 
 

2364
13.74
133.2
109.7
51.8
61.5
9.1
5.0
1.7
7.3
2.4
5.1
5.5
1.7
4.8
6.6
7.39

 
 

2368
13.76
117.4
110.2
50.8
59.8
9.1
4.9
1.7
7.3
2.5
5.1
5.5
1.7
4.0
5.8
5.9

x) In the control mixtures, 0.8% of the preservative was replaced by 0.8% of barley meal.

Table 2. Composition and the content (g.kg DM-1) of nutrients in mixtures for late pregnant and lactating sows

Ingredients

Groups

I
control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Barley meal
Wheat meal
Extracted soybean meal
Wheat bran
Rapeseed oil
Preservative
Pasture chalk
Monocalcium phosphate
Pasture salt
Premix
Phyzyme х P
L-lysine 98
L-threonine
D1 – methionine 99
Tryptophan

39.00
32.6525
17.15
4.00
2.80
0.80
1.62
0.95
0.46
0.30
0.0125
0.190
0.035
-

39.00
37.5875
11.50
4.50
2.65
0.80
1.62
1.00
0.46
0.30
0.0125
0.370
0.065
0.025

39.00
39.9275
8.80
4.70
2.60
0.80
1.62
1.05
0.46
0.30
0.0125
0.460
0.080
0.040

In total

100.00

100.00

100.00

Nutrients content in 1 kg of mixture
(g.kg DM-1):
Net energy kcal (g.kg DM-1)
Metabolic energy MJ (g.kg DM-1)
Total protein
Crude fibre
Crude fat
Crude ash
Ca
P
Na
Lysine
Methionine
Methionine + Cystine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Izoleucin
Valine
Arginine

 

2594
15.08
193.1
39.5
51.6
63.5
10.8
7.3
2.3
10.7
3.4
7.0
7.2
2.5
7.7
9.1
11.8

 

2594
15.08
174.0
39.4
49.8
61.5
10.8
7.3
2.3
10.7
3.4
6.8
7.2
2.5
6.7
8.0
10.1

 

2594
15.08
16.52
39.3
49.2
60.7
10.8
7.3
2.3
10.7
3.4
6.8
7.2
2.5
6.1
7.5
9.2

x) In the control mixtures, 0.8% of the preservative was replaced by 0.8% of barley meal.

Maintenance conditions The sows included in the experiment were kept in individual pens until 105th day of pregnancy, and then were moved to a farrowing pen, where they stayed until 28th day of lactation. Farrowing pens were equipped with separate nipple drinkers for sows and piglets. Infrared radiators were installed above the mats as a heat source in the part of the pen for piglets. Parturition of sows was affected without any help from maintenance workers. Environmental conditions in the buildings for gestation and lactation sows corresponded to the neutral thermal and humidity conditions and were adjusted automatically by a ventilation.

Feeding programme. Low gestation sows, from mating to 90th day of gestation, were fed individually with friable mixtures given by hand to troughs, once a day in amount of 2.5 kg. High gestation sows, from 91st to 105th day of pregnancy, were fed individually with granulated mixture given by hand to troughs, twice a day in amount of 3.5 kg/head/day. Lactating sows in a farrowing stall were given ad libitum mixtures in a granulated form from auto-feeders.

Piglets flushing started from 7th day of life with the same mixture of "Prestarter" type in a granulated form, that was given ad libitum up to 28th day of life.

Information collected.

Statistical calculations. The results of the study were analysed statistically using one-factor analysis of variance. Significance of differences between the groups were assesses by Duncan's multiple range test using STATGRAPHICS 5.0. software. The results were presented as arithmetical means and standard deviations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mixtures assessment. As mentioned above, feed components that mixtures were produced from, were collected in an adequate amount and were subject to chemical analysis. The results of analysis were the basis for an optimisation of established levels of particular nutrients.

The level of macro and microelements and vitamins was the same for all the groups. The properly selected premix was the source of these elements. The content of mineral components and vitamins in 1 kg of mixtures for gestation and lactating sows of all nutritional groups was the same and consistent with the upper limit recommended in Polish [23] and Dutch [4] standards. The established daily doses of mixtures for gestation sows were fully eaten in all the groups, thus it may be concluded they influence physiological and environmental effects.

In order to improve the utilisation of phytic phosphorus and other nutrients collected from the feed materials [19], microbial phytase in amount of 500 FTU/kg was introduced to mixtures for gestation and lactating sows.

It was demonstrated in another work [15] that the preservative applied influenced the reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria count from 1.3 × 106 to 3.1 × 102, and a decrease in fungi number from 3.9 × 103 to 4.0 × 101. The preservative reduced B1 alpha-toxin level from 2.0 to 1.2 ppb. That preservative did not influence significantly the reduction of ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxyniwalenol.

Amount of nitrogen released to the environment in faeces. The utilization of basic nutrients from given feed mixtures by sows was documented on the basis of chemical analysis of faeces and urine excreted. Those analyses concerned the period of low pregnancy (60th day of pregnancy) and high pregnancy (105th day) and the results are compiled separately for each period.

Low pregnancy period (Table 3). Dry matter content in faeces excreted by sows from particular groups was 26.36, 24.83 and 27.81%, respectively. The analysed components like total protein, fibre, crude fat and ash refer to 100% of dry matter.

Table 3. Nutrients content (g.kg DM-1) faeces of low gestation sows and nitrogen content in urine (60th day of gestation)

Nutrients

Groups

I
Control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Dry matter
               SD ±

263.6
±8.2

248.3
±7.2

278.1
±17.9

Crude protein
               SD ±
               %

150.4
±10.4
100.0

146.0
±10.8
97.1

127.9
±9.8
85.0

Crude fibre
               SD ±
               %

175.9
±11.1
100.0

181.5
±10.5
103.2

180.7
±16.0
102.7

Crude fat
               SD ±
               %

34.8
±5.9
100.0

32.2
±8.5
92.5

30.0
±7.6
86.2

Crude ash
               SD ±
               %

154.6
±17.2
100.0

147.7
±8.1
95.5

142.6
±11.9
92.2

Content N in:
Wet faeces
               SD ±
               %

Urine
               SD ±
               %


6.12a
±0.2
100.0

7.06a,A
±0.5
100.0


5.86
±0.4
95.7

6.38b,c
±1.1
90.40


5.66b
±0.2
92.5

5.52B,d
±0.4
78.2

Values with the same letters and with no letters do not differ significantly (a,b at P≤0.05 and A,B at P≤0.01)

Total protein content in the faeces of sows from the control group was 15.04%, while in experimental groups the level of that component was lower by 3 and 5%. That is the result of a reduced protein level in the mixtures fed.

The content of crude fibre in faeces of sows from all the groups was similar; however, slightly higher in experimental groups. It may thus be concluded that reduced protein level deteriorates fibre utilisation.

Crude fat in faeces of sows from the control group was at the level of 3.48%, and in experimental groups its level was lower by 7.5% and 13.8%, which may indicate better fat utilisation with lowered protein levels.

Crude ash in faeces of sows from the control group was at the level of 15.5%, and in experimental groups its level was lower by 4.5% and 7.8%.

Nitrogen (N) content in wet faeces from sows from the control group was 0.612 g N, while in experimental groups it was lower by 4.3% and 7.5%, thus proportional to the decrease in protein content in feed mixtures. Sows excreted more nitrogen in urine compared to faeces. Thus, the influence of protein levels in mixtures fed to the pigs was more clear. Sows from the control group expelled 0.706 g N in urine, and in experimental groups that level was lower by 9.6% and 11.8%. The differences observed between the control group and experimental ones were confirmed statistically.

High pregnancy period (105th day). Faeces expelled by sows (Table 4) contained a higher amount of dry matter (28.16%) than in the period of low pregnancy.

Table 4. Nutrients content (g.kg DM-1) faeces of high gestation sows and nitrogen content in urine (105th day of gestation)

Nutrients

Groups

I
Control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Dry matter
                SD ±

281.6
±5.6

275.1
±11.4

280.0
±15.2

Crude protein
                SD ±
                %

187.6
±16.0
100.0

184.9
±18.9
98.6

173.0
±26.0
92.2

Crude fibre
                SD ±
                %

186.8
±7.1
100.0

188.4
±18.0
100.8

188.7
±19.0
101.0

Crude fat
                SD ±
                %

42.8
±14.8
100.0

50.8
±6.6
118.7

50.3
±7.5
117.5

Crude ash
               SD ±
                %

201.4
±18.3
100.0

181.1
±21.4
89.9

186.8
±23.3
92.7

Content N in:
Wet faeces
               SD ±
                %

Urine
                SD ±
                %


8.45a
±0.8
100.0

7.18a,A
±1.1
100.0


8.15
±1.0
96.4

6.01b,c
±1.0
83.7


7.73b
±1.0
91.5

5.05B,d
±0.5
70.3

Values with the same letters and with no letters do not differ significantly (a,b at P≤0.05 and A,B at P≤0.01)

Total protein levels in faeces of sows from the control group was 18.76%, so it was higher when compared to the period of low pregnancy (15.04%). It results from the fact that the mixture for sows in the period of low pregnancy contained only 13% protein, and the mixture for high gestation sows contained 17% of total protein. Sows from the experimental groups expelled in faeces an amount of protein lower by 1.4% and 7.8% than those from the experimental groups.

The content of crude fibre in faeces of sows from the control group was almost the same (18.8%). The values are close to those obtained in a period of low pregnancy. It was demonstrated in the previous study [16] that lowered protein level influenced worse fibre utilisation, and its content in faeces was 20.3%. In the present study in turn, the applied acidifier addition to mixtures with lowered protein level prevented the deterioration of fibre utilisation.

As it is given by Raj et al. [25] basing on the digestive study conducted on sows, with fibre level of 2.8% the digestibility index was 65.5%, and with that component increase to 10.6% the digestibility decreased to 41.7%.

Crude fat in the faeces of sows from the control group was at a level of 4.28%, and in experimental groups its level was higher by 18%. Thus it may be concluded that fat is utilised in a poorer manner during high pregnancy comparing to low pregnancy period. Raj and Fandrejewski [24] demonstrated that fat digestibility in sows in a period of low pregnancy was 40.3%, and in a period of high pregnancy it decreased to 22.8%.

Content of crude ash in faeces of experimental groups sows was lower by 10.1 and 7.3% comparing to control ones.

Nitrogen (N) content in wet faeces coming from sows from the control group was 0.845 g N, and was higher as compared to low pregnancy period (0.612 g N) which resulted from higher content of nitrogen in complete feed for high gestation and lactation sows and increase daily feed intake from 2,5 to 3,5kg. Sows from experimental groups expelled in faeces amount of nitrogen lower by 3.6% and 8.5%. Decrease in N content in faeces of sows from experimental groups was similar like in the period of low pregnancy. The content of nitrogen expelled in urine by sows from the control group (0.718 g N) was similar like in urine from the period of low pregnancy (0.706 g N). Sows from the experimental groups in high pregnancy period expelled in urine less nitrogen by 16.3% and 29.7% as compared to control ones.

Biochemical and haematological indices of sows blood. The results obtained from that analyses presented in Table 5 indicate that the reduction of protein level in mixtures given influence the indices of protein transformation. A decrease in total protein content in blood serum of sows from 75,5 to 70,5 g/l. The content of urea in the control group was 7.43 mmol/l, and in the groups with lowered protein level, a proportional decrease in urea level to 6.09 and 5.99 mmol/l was noted.

Table 5. Biochemical indices of sows blood serum

Indices

 

Groups

I
Control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Total protein [g/l]
                                              SD

75.5
±3.8

70.5
±5.2

72.4
±8.6

Albumins [g/l]
                                              SD

39.4
±1.7

40.7
±3.0

39.0
±2.9

ASPAT [U/L]
                                              SD

38.3
±7.8

36.4
±3.8

32.6
±6.2

ALAT [U/l]
                                              SD

45.0
±6.3

43.9
±7.4

37.4
±6.6

Urea [mmol/l]
                                              SD

7.43a
±1.06

6.09b
±1.25

5.99b
±0.61

Glucose [mmol/l]
                                              SD

1.64
±0.61

2.21
±0.91

1.89
±1.24

Total cholesterol [mmol/l]
                                              SD

1.94
±0.35

2.15
±0.57

2.19
±0.44

Cholesterol HDL [mmol/l]
                                              SD

1.05
±0.22

1.15
±0.28

1.16
±0.22

Cholesterol LDL [mmol/l]
                                              SD

0.83
±0.18

0.90
±0.19

0.86
±0.23

Triglyceride [mmol/l]
                                              SD

0.23
±0.09

0.32
±0.13

0.36
±0.17

The further effect of protein reduction in mixtures given was a decrease in enzymatic activity of ASPAT from 38.3 to 32.6 U/l, and ALAT activity from 45.0 to 37.4 U/l.

The results obtained also prove the profitable influence of reduced protein levels with the addition of exogenous amino acids on the increase in glucose concentrations from 1.64 to 2.21 and 1.89 mmol/l. It may be thus concluded that this kind of feeding influences energy balances in sows. The effect of that metabolism may be an increased lactose level in milk of sows from the experimental groups that was demonstrated in the previous study [7]. An increase in total cholesterol level from 1.94 to 2.19 mmol/l, HDL from 1.05 to 1.16 mmol/l, and triglycerides from 0.23 to 0.36 mmol/l was observed in blood serum of sows fed with mixtures of reduced protein level.

The obtained blood results concerning mineral components presented in Table 6 prove that protein level in mixtures for sows did not affect significantly the level of macroelements analysed: Ca (2.48-2.50-2.45 mmol/l), P (2.10-2.12-2.08 mmol/l), Mg (1.09 to 0.92 mmol/l), Na (143.4 to 141.7 mmol/l). No significant differentiation between the nutritional groups in the range of zinc and iron content was observed. Copper content in turn, increased from 34.6 to 44.0 mmol/l. The level of that microelements was close to reference values given by Winnicka [30] and Korniewicz et al. [14].

Table 6. Content of mineral elements in blood serum

Indices

Groups

I
Control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

Na [mmol/l]
                                              SD

143.4
±1.1

142.6
±1.8

141.7
±1.0

K [mmol/l]
                                              SD

5.78
±0.31

5.68
±0.32

5.54
±0.32

Chlorides [mmol/l]
                                              SD

103.1
±1.4

101.8
±1.9

101.9
±1.3

Ca [mmol/l]
                                              SD

2.48
±0.06

2.50
±0.11

2.45
±0.09

Mg [mmol/l]
                                              SD

1.09
±0.14

0.92
±0.16

0.99
±0.11

P [mmol/l]
                                              SD

2.10
±0.31

2.12
±0.27

2.08
±0.22

Fe [mmol/l]
                                              SD

20.80
±4.64

18.60
±6.47

19.10
±4.74

Zn [mmol/l]
                                              SD

7.21
±0.65

7.80
±1.45

7.19
±0.63

Cu [mmol/l]
                                              SD

34.58
±3.29

41.54
±2.97

44.01
±4.51

It was demonstrated in the study conducted on the same sows [17] that lowered protein level with preservative addition to mixtures for high gestation and lactating sows did not influence the content of basic components in their colostrum and milk.

The results of haematological study presented in Table 7 demonstrate that applied protein level in mixtures for sows did not affect haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT) concentration nor red blood cells content (RBC). No differences between the control group and the experimental ones in the range of other indices connected to iron metabolism, like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were noted.

Table 7. Haematological indicators of sows blood

Indices

Groups

I
Control

II
protein lowered of 10%

III
protein lowered of 20%

White blood cells (WBC) [G/l]
                                              SD

20.0
±3.9

19.3
±3.7

18.6
±5.3

Red blood cells (RBC) [T/l]
                                              SD

5.57
±0.67

5.86
±0.77

5.25
±0.61

Haemoglobin (HGB) [mmol/l]
                                              SD

7.6
±0.8

8.3
±1.5

7.2
±0.7

Haematocrit (HCT) [l/l]
                                              SD

0.39
±0.04

0.44
±0.08

0.38
±0.04

Platelets (PLT) [G/l]
                                              SD

138.0
±41.5

125.0
±31.8

145.0
±52.9

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) [fl]
                                              SD

70.7
±3.7

70.5
±4.9

72.4
±3.8

Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin (MCH) [fmol]
                                              SD


1.37
±0.07


1.33
±0.10


1.37
±0.10

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin
concentration (MCHC)[mmol/l]
                                              SD


19.4
±0.3


18.8
±0.5


19.0
±1.1

The controlled haematological blood indices were within the reference values given by Winnicka [30] and close to the results obtained in the study conducted by Korniewicz et al. [14].

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The lowered protein level of 10 and 20% and preservative addition in amount of 0.8% to mixtures for gestation sows influenced the decrease in nitrogen release in faeces by 4 and 8%, and in urine by 16 and 29%, respectively.
  2. The preservative used in the study exhibited specially profitable effect in a decrease in amount of nitrogen expelled in urine in control group sows by 9%, and in the experimental groups by 9 and 18%, respectively, comparing to feeding with the same mixtures but without preservative addition.
  3. A decrease in total protein, urea, enzymatic activity of ASPAT and ALAT, and an increase in cholesterol level was observed in blood serum of sows fed with mixtures of lowered protein level.
  4. Minerals level in blood serum and haematological indices of sows blood did not depend on protein level and preservative addition to the mixtures fed.
  5. Basing on the analyses of faeces and urine it may be concluded that sows fed with mixtures of lowered protein level expel to the environment the amount of nitrogen lower by 1.33 and 2.66 kg/head/year.

Acknowledgements

The present study was conducted within the framework of the research university statutory - No. Z4/S/2011.

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Accepted for print: 21.12.2011



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