Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2011
Volume 14
Issue 4
Topic:
Veterinary Medicine
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Skoczylas B. , Brudnicki W. , Nowicki W. , Jabłoński R. , Kirkiłło-Stacewicz K. , Wach J. 2011. CORTICAL BRANCHES OF THE MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA), EJPAU 14(4), #09.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume14/issue4/art-09.html

CORTICAL BRANCHES OF THE MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA)

Benedykt Skoczylas1, Witold Brudnicki1, Włodzimierz Nowicki1, Ryszard Jabłoński2, Krzysztof Kirkiłło-Stacewicz1, Jan Wach1
1 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
2 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in fallow deer were described using 60 hemispheres. It was demonstrated that the artery gets divided into ten permanent branches. Two rhinal arteries supply the region of the brain located on the border between the old and the archicortex and the neocortex. The other eight branches gets divided into three branches running towards the frontal lobe, two branches – to the region of the parietal lobe and three temporal branches which supply blood to the neocortex only. The frontal, parietal and temporal branches descended independently from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery or first formed a common trunk.

Key words: anatomy, cerebral arteries in fallow deer.

INTRODUCTION

Literature offers reports describing the division of the middle cerebral artery into branches. Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in cat were investigated by Chadzypanagiotis (1975), in selected Carnivora – by Wiland (1991), in wild boar – Skoczylas and Wiland (1999). The pattern of the middle cerebral artery and its cortical branches in ruminants was studied by Węgrzyn et al. (1983) in European bison; Jabłoński et al. (1996,1997,1999) – in European red deer, European roe deer, moose and in cow; Skoczylas et al. (2000) – in sheep, Brudnicki et al. (2005) in goat. The papers demonstrate that cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in those animal species reach the same areas of the cerebral cortex. The differences concern the pattern of descent and division of respective cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery. The pattern of the division of the middle cerebral artery is affected by various factors, e.g. the species classification and the furrowing of the cerebral cortex. In mammals on the surface of the cerebral cortex there is a different pattern of sulci and gyri, which can affect the anatomy of cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (Braur Schober, 1970). Considering the discrepancies resulting from respective descriptions and factoring in new research, the authors of the present paper have launched the study of the pattern, the way of division and variation in the cortical branches of middle cerebral artery in fallow deer and to compare the results with those reported by other authors.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The research involved 30 brains in fallow deer (Dama dama), namely a total of 60 cerebral hemispheres. The animal heads were cut off at the height of the 3 cervical vertebrum. The arteries were filled with latex introduced with the syringe into the common carotid artery. The heads were fixed in a 5% formalin solution and then decalcified in hydrochloric acid; having opened the cranial cavity, the brains were taken out. The hemispheres were photographed and the anatomy, division pattern and the pattern of cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery were described.

RESULTS

The brain in fallow deer is supplied with blood by internal carotid arteries the intracranial section of which reproduces from the rostral epidural rete mirabile. The extracranial section of the internal carotid artery undergoes atrophy after birth. Having passed through the dura mater the internal carotid artery bifurcates into the rostral cerebral artery and caudal communicating artery which, with the symmetrical vessels form the arterial circle of the brain. At the height of the rostral border of the decussation of optic nerves the rostral cerebral artery gives off a thick arterial vessel; the middle cerebral artery. The middle cerebral artery is the strongest vessel supplying blood to the telencephalon. The initial section of the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery goes along the ventral surface of the optic tract, then the section bends around the piriform lobe and goes further to the lateral rhinal sulcus, and then , having passed it, it undergoes a division. From the initial section of the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery there descend minor central branches supplying blood to the olfactory tracts and the piriform lobe. The main trunk of the middle cerebral artery undergoes divisions into a number of cortical branches which run towards the specific region of the hemisphere, supplying blood to specific regions of the brain.

Figure 1. The division of the middle cerebral artery on the surface of the cortex
Anterior rhinal artery (a. rhinalis anterior) - 1, posterior rhinal artery (a. rhinalis posterior) -2, orbital branch (r. orbitalis -3), inferior frontal branch (r. frontalis inferior) - 4, superior frontal branch (r. frontalis superior) - 5, anterior parietal branch (r. parietalis anterior) - 6, posterior parietal branch (r. parietalis posterior) - 7, superior temporal branch (r. temporalis superior) - 8, middle temporal branch (r. temporalis medius) - 9, inferior temporal branch (r. temporalis inferior) -10, internal carotid artery (a. carotis interna) - a. rostral cerebral artery (a. cerebri rostralis) -b, caudal communicating artery (a. communicaus caudalis) - c, Sylvian fissure (fissura sylvia) - d, presylvian sulcus (praesylvius) - e, diagonal sulcus (sulcus diagonalis) - f, middle suprasylvian sulcus (sulcus suprasylvius medialis) - g, caudal suprasylvian sulcus (sulcus suprasylvius caudalis) - h, ectosylvian sulcus (sulcus ectosylvius) - i, ectomarginal sulcus (sulcus ectomarginalis) - j; rostral lateral rhinal sulcus (sulcus rhinalis lateralis rostralis) - k, caudal lateral rhinal sulcus (sulcus rhinalis lateralic caudalis) - l.

The first permanent branches of the middle cerebral artery, supplying both the archicortex and the neocortex are rhinal arteries. The anterior rhinal artery (Fig. 1-1), having separated from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery goes to the rostral part of the lateral rhinal sulcus it can ascend into at various places. Its terminal branches can also appear again from under the lateral rhinal sulcus and then ascend under the surface of the cerebral cortex. The posterior rhinal artery (Fig. 1-2) ascends into the caudal part of the lateral rhinal sulcus and its terminal branches also supply the area of the cerebral cortex located under the sulcus.

The other branches of the middle cerebral artery supply the areas of the cerebral cortex found under the lateral rhinal sulcus. On the cortex towards the frontal lobe there spread three thick branches; the orbital branch (Fig. 1-3) descends as the first one; it supplies blood to the area of the cerebral cortex found over the presylvian sulcus and below the diagonal sulcus. The inferior frontal branch (Fig.1-4) runs towards the diagonal sulcus and then one of its branches ascends into that sulcus and others spread on the surface of the cerebral cortex between that sulcus and middle suprasylvian sulcus. The superior frontal branch (Fig. 1-5), having descended from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery, ascends into the initial section of the middle suprasylvian sulcus. The terminal twigs, having passed that sulcus, get lost under the surface of the cerebral cortex.

Another vessel which runs towards the parietal lobe bifurcates into two branches. The anterior parietal branch (Fig. 1-6) and posterior parietal branch (Fig. 1-7); the vessels run towards the middle suprasylvian sulcus. Having passed that sulcus, the vessels spread medially, reaching the marginal sulcus. The lateral-posterior surface of the hemisphere is supplied with blood by the branches of the middle cerebral artery; they descend at various heights and they have been referred to as temporal branches.

The superior temporal branch (Fig. 1-8) is usually the strongest cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery and its further part on the surface of the cerebral cortex. Having left the sylvian fissure, it runs towards the caudal suprasylvian sulcus and runs further towards ectomarginal sulcus. The branch supplies blood to the superior part of the cerebral cortex. The middle temporal branch (Fig. 1-9) descends slightly distant from the previous branch and runs towards the terminal section of the caudal suprasylvian sulcus. Having passed that sulcus, its terminal branches go to the posterior border of the hemisphere and go onto the surface of the occipital lobe. The inferior temporal branch (Fig.1-10), having separated from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery, runs on the surface of the cortex between the lateral rhinal sulcus and the ectosylvian sulcus. Its terminal branches participate in supplying a part of the occipital lobe.

Considering the above general pattern of cortical branches of the middle artery in fallow deer, one can observe that respective sections of those branches can run inside respective sulci, sometimes undergoing further divisions, however, always running towards the described regions of cerebral cortex.

Studying the pattern of descent of cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in fallow deer individuals investigated, it was found that in all the individual from rostral cerebral artery there descended a single independent vessel; the middle cerebral artery. In 9 (15%) hemispheres from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery there descended rostrally there descended a common trunk for the anterior rhinal artery, for the orbital branch and for the inferior and superior frontal branch. Caudally, the main trunk gave off an independent posterior rhinal artery, then the common descent for temporal branches: inferior, middle and superior as well as a common descent for parietal branches: anterior and posterior (Phot.1). In successive 10 (16.7%) cases from the main trunk there descended rostrally an independent anterior rhinal artery, followed by a common descent for the orbital branch and for inferior frontal branch. Caudally from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery there separated a common trunk for temporal branches: inferior, middle and superior as well as the posterior rhinal artery. The main trunk, having ascended into the sylvian fissure, gave off a common trunk for anterior and posterior parietal branches as well as for the superior frontal branch onto the surface of the cortex. As for other 29 (48.3%) hemispheres, from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery rostrally there descended a common trunk for the anterior rhinal artery and for the orbital branch, followed by a common descent for inferior and superior frontal branches. Caudally the main trunk gave off the posterior rhinal artery with a common descent with the inferior temporal artery. Having penetrated into the sylvian fissure, there got onto the surface of the cortex a common trunk for anterior and posterior parietal branches as well as for middle and superior temporal branches. In the other 12 (20%) cases from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery rostrally there separated a common descent for the anterior rhinal artery and for the orbital branch, inferior and superior frontal ranches. Caudally from the main trunk there separated the posterior rhinal artery with a common trunk with the inferior and middle temporal branches. The main trunk, having ascended into the sylvian fissure, gave off a common descent for parietal branches and the superior temporal branch onto the surface of the cerebral cortex.

Photograph 1 - Departure of the single trunk of the middle cerebral artery from the rostral cerebral artery with all the cortical branches Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery: anterior olfactory artery - 1, posterior olfactory artery - 2, orbital branch - 3, interior frontal branch - 4, superior frontal branch - 5, anterior parietal branch - 6, posterior parietal branch - 7, superior temporal branch - 8, middle temporal branch - 9, interior temporal branch - 10.

DISCUSSION

In fallow deer the middle cerebral artery supplies the same regions of the brain as in the ruminant species studied so far. The discrepancies concern mostly its division into respective branches. Chadzypanagiotis (1975), describing the cortical branches in cat, differentiated between the branches supplying the old cortex, the branches on the border of the old and the neocortex as well as the branches for the neocortex. In fallow deer the arteries supplying the old cortex are minor arterial vessels onto the piriform lobe and olfactory tracts. On the border of the old and the neocortex there run the anterior and posterior rhinal arteries. In fallow deer the anterior rhinal artery in 16.7% cases was a vessel which descended independently from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery. In the other hemispheres it was a vessel which separated in a form of a common trunk with the orbital branch or a common descent with the orbital branch, inferior and superior frontal branches. The posterior rhinal artery, on the other hand, in 15% cases was a vessel descending from the main trunk. In the other hemispheres it was one of the branches of the common trunk for temporal branches or it descended directly from the inferior temporal branch.

The other cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery can be divided into a group of frontal, parietal and temporal branches. In fallow deer, similarly as in other ruminant species, there are eight main vessels supplying blood to the same regions of hemispheres.

As reported by Jabłoński, Roskosz (1997), Jabłoński et al. (1996, 1999), Skoczylas et al. (2000), Brudnicki et al. (2005), in roe deer, European red deer, moose, sheep and goat, the middle cerebral artery, before reaching the lateral rhinal sulcus, most frequently gets divided into two or three main branches. In fallow deer it was found to be divided into two main branches in 15% hemispheres. However, there dominated in fallow deer a single trunk for the middle cerebral artery which only having reached the lateral rhinal sulcus got divided. Below the lateral rhinal sulcus, from the main trunk there descended only the anterior and posterior rhinal arteries as well as minor vessels supplying the old cortex. Such a pattern and division of the middle cerebral artery were observed in 85% cases; it should be thus considered dominant in that species. In fallow deer the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery show an even distribution on the surface of hemispheres and, as compared with other ruminant species, they demonstrate a relatively low variation of that vascular region.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The lowered protein level of 10 and 20% and preservative addition in amount of 0.8% to mixtures for pregnant sows influenced the decrease in nitrogen release in faeces by 4 and 8%, and in urine by 16 and 29%, respectively.
  2. The preservative used in the study exhibited specially profitable effect in a decrease in amount of nitrogen expelled in urine in control group sows by 9%, and in the experimental groups by 9 and 18%, respectively, comparing to feeding with the same mixtures but without preservative addition.
  3. A decrease in total protein, urea, enzymatic activity of ASPAT and ALAT, and an increase in cholesterol level was observed in blood serum of sows fed with mixtures of lowered protein level.
  4. Minerals level in blood serum and haematological indices of sows blood did not depend on protein level and preservative addition to the mixtures fed.
  5. Basing on the analyses of faeces and urine it may be concluded that sows fed with mixtures of lowered protein level expel to the environment the amount of nitrogen lower by 1.33 and 2.66 kg/head/year.

REFERENCES

  1. Brauer K., Schaber W., 1970. Katalog der sangetiergehirne VEB Gustaw Fisher Verlag Jena.
  2. Brudnicki W., Jabłoński R., Nowicki W., Skoczylas B., 2005. Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in goat (Capra hircus), Bydg. Tow. Nauk., Prace Komisji Nauk Rolniczych i Biologicznych, Bydgoszcz Seria B Nr 56, s. 29-32.
  3. Chadzypanagiotis D., 1975: Arteries on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere in the cat. Folia Morphol. Warszawa 33, 385-399.
  4. Jabłoński R., Kubica I., Skoczylas B., Wiland C., 1996. Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in deer (Cervus elaphus L.) Zeszyty Naukowe ATR,  Bydgoszcz, nr 204, Zootechnika 28, 41-51.
  5. Jabłoński R., Roskosz T., 1997: Middle cerebral artery (a. cerebri media) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) Ann. Warsaw. Agricult. Univ. SGGW, Vet. Med. 20, 35-41.
  6. Jabłoński R., Skoczylas B., Wiland C. 1999: The main branches of the middle cerebral artery in elk (Alces alces). Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Univ. Vet. Med. Vol. 2 Issue 2, 1-6.
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  8. Skoczylas B., Wiland C. 1999: Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Univ. Vet. Med. Vol. 2 Issue 1-6.
  9. Skoczylas B., Nowicki W., Wiland C., Brudnicki W., Jabłoński R., 2000. Cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in goat (Ovis aries L.). Zeszyty Naukowe ATR Bydgoszcz 224, Zoot. 31, 67-75.
  10. Węgrzyn M., Roskosz T., Mazowiecka M. 1983: Brain arteries of the European bison, Bison bonasus L. 1758. Ann. Warsaw Agricult. Univ. SGGW – AR – Vet. Med. 11, 9-16.
  11. Wiland C. 1991. Comparative studiem of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery in carnivores (Carnivora). Zeszyty Naukowe ATR, Bydgoszcz 44, 1-52.

Accepted for print: ..


Benedykt Skoczylas
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Witold Brudnicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Włodzimierz Nowicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: wlodek_novika@interia.eu

Ryszard Jabłoński
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting,
University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6, 85-029 Bydgoszcz, Poland
email: rjablonski1945@tlen.pl

Krzysztof Kirkiłło-Stacewicz
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: krzysztof.stacewicz@o2.pl

Jan Wach
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
Phone: 052 374 95 10
email: janwach82@poczta.onet.pl

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