Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2010
Volume 13
Issue 4
Topic:
Veterinary Medicine
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Nowicki W. , Brudnicki W. , Iwa鎍zyk M. , Jab這雟ki R. , Skoczylas B. 2010. VARIATION IN BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA IN EUROPEAN RABBIT, EJPAU 13(4), #10.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume13/issue4/art-10.html

VARIATION IN BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA IN EUROPEAN RABBIT

W這dzimierz Nowicki1, Witold Brudnicki1, Marcin Iwa鎍zyk2, Ryszard Jab這雟ki2, Benedykt Skoczylas1
1 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
2 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The research involved 38 individuals of the wild rabbit (22 males and 16 females). The arteries were filled with synthetic latex LBS-3060 introduced into the left cardiac ventricle, using the syringe. The material prepared in such a way was fixed for 3 months ina 5% solution of formalin. Asymmetry of the even branches in distribution and in the way of departure of the arteries of the ventral artery was observed, while in one case double renal artery was stated. The variability of the departure of deep circumflex iliac arteries was proved.

Key words: rabbit, arteries, abdominal aorta.

INTRODUCTION

The variation in the morphological structure of living organisms is a common phenomenon both in the animal and in the plant world.

The variation in the aorta and its branches in the breeding form of rabbit was already described by Smith [24]. The abdominal aorta in different domestic animal species was researched by Siebera [22], Miller [18] and Koch [16]. Arteries branching from the aortic arch in leporids (Leporidae) were described by Ding et al. [9], vascular variations in rabbit, Dabanoglu [8] – the aorta structure and pattern in New Zealand's rabbit. The pattern and variation of the aortic arch arteries in rabbit were covered by Brudnicki et al. [7].

The arteries descending from the abdominal aorta were described in detail in dog [3,10,12,13,17,19]. They were also described in cat [3], polar fox[14,15], mink [25], sheep, European bison, guinea pig.

The celiac artery was covered by a separate research [15], and renal artery [5,6,26].

Literature seems to offer no information on the pattern and variation in wild rabbit form. With that in mind, the present research covered that vascular area and the results compared with research which involved other mammal species.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The research involved 38 individuals: 22 males and 16 females.
The arteries were filled with synthetic latex LBS – 3060 introduced into the left cardiac ventricle, using the syringe. The material prepared in such a way was fixed for 3 months in a 5% solution of formalin. Having prepared the aorta with branches, the measurements were taken with the use of digital calliper.

The following were measured: the diameter of the abdominal aorta (at the place of the descent of celiac trunk), celiac trunk, cranial mesenteric artery, renal arteries, cranial abdominal arteries, caudal mesenteric artery, profound iliac circumflex arteries, external iliac arteries, internal iliac arteries and median caudal artery. Besides, the measurements covered the length of the celiac trunk and mesenteric cranial artery to their first branches and the length of the abdominal aorta from the celiac trunk to the branching of external iliac arteries. The photographic documentation was made with the Panasonic Lumix DMC FZ-50digital camera.

RESULTS

The first branch of the abdominal aorta in rabbit is celiac trunk. It was found that celiac trunk branched out into two vessels: common hepatic artery and common trunk for the sinister gastric artery and splenic artery (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Pattern of abdominal aorta with branches in rabbit:
A – abdominal aorta (aorta abdominalis), 1 – celiac trunk (truncus celiacus), 2 – cranial mesenteric artery (a. mesenterica cranialis), 3 – dextral renal artery (a. renalis dextra), 3' – sinister renal artery (a. renalis sinistra), 4 – dextral cranial abdominal artery (a. abdominalis cranialis dextra), 4' – sinistral cranial artery (a. abdominalis cranialis sinistra), 5 and 6 – testicular/ ovarian arteries (a. testiculae or a. ovaricae), 7 – caudal mesenteric artery (a. mesenterica caudalis), 8 – median caudal artery (a. caudalis mediana), 9 – dextral profound iliac circumflex artery(a. circumflexa ilium profunda), 9' – sinistral profound iliac circumflex artery (a. circumflexa ilium profunda), 10 – dextral external iliac artery (a. iliaca externa dextra), 10' – sinistral external iliac artery (a. iliaca externa sinistra), 11 – dextral internal iliac artery (a. iliaca interna dextra), 11' – sinistral internal iliac artery (a. iliaca interna sinistra)

Behind the celiac trunk there descends cranial mesenteric artery from the abdominal aorta. It is an asymmetrical vessel and its diameter is biggest of all. It always descends as a separate branch which gives rise to caudal pancreatic-duodenal artery, and then iliac-colonic artery.

Fig. 2. Division of celiac trunk in European rabbit:
A – abdominal aorta, 1 – celiac trunk, 2 – common trunk for sinistral gastric artery (4) and splenic artery (5), 3 – common hepatic artery

Renal arteries descended as single branches of the aorta in 36 cases (94%). Dextral renal artery was also descending first and then the left one. In a single individual the distance between dextral and sinistral arteries was minimal (1 mm).

In one preparation (2.63%) there was observed a double sinistral renal artery. Those are two independent arteries descending from the abdominal aorta, reaching the kidney. The distance between them was 22.44 mm (Fig. 3).

Cranial abdominal arteries, both the left one and the right, in 100% cases descended from renal arteries. The differences concerned only the place of descent from the renal artery– against the abdominal aorta.

Fig. 3. Sinistral double renal artery in European rabbit:
A – abdominal aorta, 1 – dextral renal artery, 2 – sinistral renal arteries, vascular variation, 3 – cranial mesenteric artery

Ovarian arteries in females and testicular arteries in males descended from the abdominal surface of the aorta with renal arteries. In all the cases the descent of those arteries was asymmetrical and the distance between then ranged from 1.7 mm to 10.66 mm.

The median caudal artery descended on the dorsal surface of the abdominal aorta slightly above the bifurcation of external iliac arteries.

The descent of profound iliac circumflex arteries showed a high variation. In 7 cases (17.6%), the sinistral artery descended from abdominal aorta. In the other 31 cases (82.4%) profound iliac circumflex arteries descended symmetrically from external iliac arteries (Fig. 4).

The abdominal aorta in all the cases divides symmetrically into two external iliac arteries.
Internal iliac arteries demonstrated a high variation in their location. In two cases (5.26%) sinistral and dextral internal iliac arteries descended from external iliac arteries at the same level as the profound iliac circumflex arteries (Fig. 4). In the other 2 cases (5.26%) the descents of those arteries at the same height were observed only on the left. In a single case the dextral internal iliac artery descended from external iliac artery at the level of the dextral profound iliac circumflex artery.

Fig. 4. Descent of profound iliac circumflex arteries and internal iliac arteries from external iliac arteries:
A – abdominal aorta, 1 – dextral profound iliac circumflex artery, 1' – sinistral profound iliac circumflex artery, 2 – dextral external iliac artery, 2' – sinistral external iliac artery, 3 – dextral internal iliac artery, 3' – sinistral internal iliac artery

There were also recorded cases of internal iliac arteries descending from external iliac arteries at another level than profound iliac circumflex arteries.

The diameter of the abdominal aorta at the place of descent pf the celiac trunk in all the individuals ranged from 2.88 mm to 4.05 mm at the mean value for the population researched of 2.88 mm.

The diameter of the celiac trunk ranged from 1.5 mm to 2.72 mm, while the mean value was 2.18 mm. the diameter of cranial mesenteric artery ranged from 2.36 mm to 3.08 mm, and the mean value is 2.65 mm.

The diameter of dextral renal artery was on average 1.78 mm, while the diameter of the sinistral renal artery – 1.71 mm. Similarly the diameter of cranial abdominal arteries demonstrates very similar mean values (dextral: 0.62; sinistral: 0.56 mm). Similar values of symmetrical vessels concern arteries profound iliac circumflex arteries, external or internal iliac arteries. (Table 1).

Table 1. Measurements of abdominal aorta and its branches

Character researched

Interval [mm]

[mm]

SD [mm]

Abdominal aorta diameter

2.88-4.05

3.54

0.34

Celiac trunk diameter

1.5-2.72

2.18

0.34

Cranial mesenteric artery diameter

2.36-3.08

2.65

0.22

Dextral renal artery diameter

1.04-2.84

1.78

0.39

Sinistral renal artery diameter

1.18-2.12

1.71

0.28

Dextral cranial abdominal artery diameter

0.29-0.88

0.62

0.13

Sinistral cranial abdominal artery diameter

0.39-0.81

0.56

0.12

Caudal mesenteric artery diameter

0.60-1.33

0.87

0.20

Median caudal artery diameter

0.57-1.24

0.95

0.18

Dextral profound iliac circumflex artery diameter

0.48-1.79

0.94

0.31

Sinistral profound iliac circumflex artery diameter

0.48-1.74

0.82

0.29

Dextral external iliac artery diameter

1.57-2.39

1.95

0.24

Sinistral external iliac artery diameter

1.48-2.6

1.96

0.34

Dextral internal iliac artery diameter

0.51-1.27

0.93

0.20

Sinistral internal iliac artery diameter

0.72-1.46

0.95

0.17

celiac trunk length

3.07-7.97

5.13

1.20

Mesenteric artery length

4.84-17.18

10.76

3.28

The differences between the left and the right diameter of internal and external iliac arteries in respective individuals did not exceed 1 mm.

The length of the celiac trunk ranged from 3.07 mm to 7.97 mm and the mean value was 5.13mm. In the case of cranial mesenteric artery, the length ranged from 4.84 mm to 17.18 mm, and the mean value – 10.76 mm.

DISCUSSION

The first branch of the abdominal aorta was always the celiac trunk which bifurcated into common hepatic artery, sinistral gastric artery and splenic artery. Such a division pattern of that vessel was described earlier in dog [4,23], cat in 41% [2], American mink in 80.4% [25], polar fox in 98.3% [15].

The cranial mesenteric artery is yet another artery descending from abdominal aorta. In all the cases it was a single descending vessel.

Cranial abdominal arteries always descended from renal arteries. An anatomic equivalent in Carnivora is the trunk of caudal phrenic artery and cranial abdominal artery which can descend from renal arteries or directly from the abdominal aorta [2,3,5,6,11].

Renal arteries descended symmetrically from the abdominal aorta; dextral renal artery descended usually as the first one, in a single case the arteries descended at the same height.

There was found also a single case of the vascular variation which involved the occurrence of double sinistral renal artery (2.63%). Such variation is frequent in Carnivora. Multiple renal arteries occurred in mink in 20.7%, dog 20% [27], polar fox in 2.5% [26], in red fox in 5.8%[20].

Ovarian and testicular arteries descended asymmetrically from the abdominal surface of the aorta, below the sinistral renal artery. Berg [2,3] observed a similar pattern of descent of those arteries in Carnivora.

Profound iliac circumflex arteries showed a high variation. Most often symmetrical profound iliac circumferential arteries descended from external iliac arteries (which was observed by Berg in cat [2]). There were also noted cases of the descent of those vessels directly at the place of bifurcation of iliac arteries and even in further sections of external iliac arteries.

External iliac arteries in all the cases descended symmetrically from the abdominal aorta. The occurrence of symmetrical descent of external iliac arteries can be identified in 87.5% of dogs [3] and 58% of cats [2]. Internal iliac arteries descended from external iliac arteries at different height.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. In the species investigated the abdominal aorta and its branches demonstrated a similar pattern to that vascular region of other described mammalian species.

  2. The variation in the descent concerned the asymmetry of symmetrical arteries.

  3. In a single individual there was found the occurrence of double sinistral renal artery.


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Accepted for print: 28.09.2010


W這dzimierz Nowicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardy雟ka 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: wlodek_novika@interia.eu

Witold Brudnicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardy雟ka 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Marcin Iwa鎍zyk
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting,
University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardy雟ka 6, 85-029 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Ryszard Jab這雟ki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting,
University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardy雟ka 6, 85-029 Bydgoszcz, Poland
email: rjablonski1945@tlen.pl

Benedykt Skoczylas
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardy雟ka 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

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