EJPAU, 2009, Volume 12, Issue 3

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12(3) #01
07 Jul 2009
Food Science and Technology
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In this study, we analyzed physico-chemical indices of tvarog produced from extended shelf life milk (ESL). Two variants of tvarog were compared: (i) produced from milk pasteurized at a high temperature (control sample), and (ii) manufactured from ESL milk. The lactic acid cheeses produced under laboratory conditions were vacuum-packed in polyethylene foil and stored for 14 days at 5°C (± 1°C). The examined cheeses were assessed organoleptically, as well as determining their water, fat, calcium contents, titratable acidity, pH and hardness (TPA test). It was found that during storage the tvarog produced using ESL milk was characterized by better organoleptic attributes. The type of milk did not significantly influence the water content in tvarogs; an insignificantly higher water content was observed in the tvarog made from pasteurized milk. Tvarogs significantly differed in fat and calcium contents, and also titratable acidity. Higher hardness in the whole study period was a characteristic of the tvarog manufactured from ESL milk.

12(3) #02
08 Jul 2009
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Over 2005-2008 at the Agricultural Experiment Station Pawłowice, in the vicinity of Wrocław, there was investigated an effect of sowing rate (Experiment 1) and plant protection method (Experiment 2) on the components and grain yield size of durum winter wheat, Komnata cultivar. Overwintering of Komnata plants in each research year over mild winters were evaluated to be very good. In Experiment 1, 400, 500, 600 and 700 grains·m-2 were sown. Komnata demonstrated very low productive tillering capacity over the research years. The highest Komnata grain yield (4.66 t·ha-1) was observed under semi-drought conditions in 2006. Increasing the sowing rate increased the number of productive spikes per area unit, decreased the number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight, which resulted in a decrease in productivity per spike. Komnata did not react with an increase in the grain yield when the higher sowing rate of 600 and 700 grains·m-2 was applied, as compared with the yield recorded for the sowing rate of 500 grains·m-2. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of the chemical plant protection method: (0) – without protection – control; (Z) – seed dressing; (1x) – seed dressing + 1x fungicides; (2x) – seed dressing + 2x fungicides on the durum wheat yielding. Dressed sowing seed and a single fungicide treatment decreased the plant infection with fungal pathogens. The chemical plant protection methods applied, as compared with the control (with no protection) increased the number of spikes per area unit, number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight, which enhanced the productivity per spike. Wheat grain yield for the seed dressing treatments (Z) was significantly higher than the no-protection yields (0). The plant protection method which involved dressed sowing seed and 2-time fungicide treatment (2x) was more favourable to the grain yield than seed dressing and a single fungicide treatment.

12(3) #03
14 Jul 2009
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The purpose of the present paper is a comparison of the quality of chrysanthemum plants of three cultivars: 'Bislet', 'Euro' and 'Reddy', which were acclimatized after having been rooted in vitro, with the quality of plants acclimatized and rooted at the same time in vivo in selected substrates. In in vitro culture the plants were rooted on MS medium with an addition of 2mg·dm-3 IAA, and next acclimatized in a mixture of peat with perlite in the volume proportion of 2:1 (v:v). Peat, perlite and a mixture of peat with perlite in the volume proportion of 2:1 (v:v) were used for direct rooting in vivo taking place simultaneously with acclimatization. A positive effect of in vivo rooting in perlite on the increase of the length and weight of the root system was found out. Plants rooted in vitro had numerous short roots of high weight. The largest fresh weight of the roots was observed in 'Bislet' and 'Euro' chrysanthemums. 'Bislet' produced the fewest roots, but they were the longest. In 'Reddy' cv. it was observed that the roots had the smallest fresh weight and they were the shortest. The highest increase of the shoot length was observed in the plants previously rooted in vitro and in the plants rooted in vivo and directly acclimatized in perlite. The most of new leaves were formed by microcuttings rooted in vitro.

12(3) #04
15 Jul 2009
Veterinary Medicine
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high quality commercial food enriched with trace minerals, particularly Zn and Cu on hair coat of yearling thoroughbred horses. In the following research horses for 110 days were fed with St Hippolit diet with 5% higher Zn and Cu contents comparing to standard high concentrated foals feed. The additional advantage of the fodder was the contents of organic forms of mentioned trace elements which has been supposed to markedly enable their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Elemental composition of the hairs and their ultrastructure were examined by means of SEM/EDS at the beginning and at the end of the study. In the course of the following research. after period of feeding with Fohlengold both morphological features of the hair coat and hairs elemental composition significantly improved. That point at the positive impact of high quality, Zn and Cu enriched diet on hair coat quality. Moreover marked correlation between elemental composition of the hair and their morphological properties were observed which show of possible SEM/EDS application in estimating elemental status of the organism.

12(3) #05
17 Jul 2009
Food Science and Technology
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In this study we examined the qualitative characteristics of cow milk kefir, produced using a lyophilized, probiotic ActiveFlora (AF) preparation, manufactured by Bionat. The control kefir was produced using a lyophilized DA kefir culture, the best among the kefir cultures manufactured by Danisco Poland (DA, DC, DG, DT and DL). DA inoculum included the microflora of kefir grains, and also Lactobacillus ssp., Lactobacillus ssp., Leuconostoc ssp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and kefir yeast. The AF preparation, apart from the Lactobacillus acidophilus-NCFM, contained the natural microflora of Caucausian kefir grains, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris oraz Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis var. diacetylactis. The experimental kefirs were subjected to physiochemical analysis (titratable acidity, pH, acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations), rheological analysis (hardness and viscosity), and an organoleptic test by a team of researchers. Samples were collected after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of cool storage (5±1°C).
The results of this study show that kefir produced using ActiveFlora (AF), similarly to DA control kefir, had very good and good organoleptic characteristics. During the first 3 days of cool storage, its scent and flavour were slightly worse than that observed in DA culture kefir, but after 3 days they were slightly better than in DA kefir. Acidity (both titratable and pH) and rheological properties (viscosity and hardness) were similar in both kefirs during the entire period of storage. Greater differences between the examined kefirs were observed in the concentrations of gustatory-olfactory compounds; during two weeks of cool storage, it was the DA kefir that usually had a higher concentration of acetaldehyde and ethanol.

12(3) #06
20 Jul 2009
Agricultural Engineering
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Changes of viscosity of 40% aqueous ethanol (vodka) flavored with commercially available essences of vanilla, lemon, orange, rum, and cream applied at concentration of 0.1 and 0.5 w% had no effect upon the macrostructure of vodka. These admixtures changed solely the flavor of that drink. Such result was confirmed by changes of the NMR spin-lattice, T1, and spin-spin, T21 and T22 relaxation times and computer simulations of the energy of interactions of the molecules of particular essences in aqueous solutions of ethanol of varying concentration.

12(3) #07
29 Jul 2009
Agricultural Engineering
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The aim of the studies was to assess the influence of nozzle arrangement in plenum on the air flow during impingement jet fluidization. Experiments were carried out using beds of soybean, carrot, sweet corn and potato parallelepipeds. For the present research, circular jets with a 11, 14 16, 20, 22, 35 mm diameter were used. Two different geometrical arrangements of nozzles are studied, a square set-up and a patchwork set-up. The nozzle dimensions are rendered dimensionless by their L/D ratio where L is the distance between standing next to each other nozzles, D is the jet inner dimension. The distance X of the jets from the container wall is characterized by relation the D. During the stabilized bed fluidization the maximal possible bed height was investigated. The most suitable bed boiling conditions were achieved for relations L/D = 4 and X/D = 1. The square set-up of nozzles in plenum in opposite to patchwork set-up effected in more uniform boiling of bed in all of its capacity. The example of the process visualization is included.

12(3) #08
31 Jul 2009
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The species composition of parasitoids and the degree of parasitization of leaf-mining moths feeding apple trees in habitats of different anthropogenic pressure was studied during three growing seasons. Twenty six species of parasitoid hymenopterans from the superfamily Chalcidoidea and the families: Braconidae and Ichneumonidae were obtained. Parasitoids from the family Eulophidae played the greatest role in parasitization of leaf-mining moths. At untreated sites, hymenopterans parasitisized 15.5% of hosts, while at the treated orchard, parasitization rate was 5.2%. Among founded parasitoids, the highest ecological tolerance showed Cirrospilus vittatus and Sympiesis gregori (obtained only from the treated orchards) and Sympies sericeicornis, Pnigalio pectinicornis and Apanteles xanthostigma occurring in both studied types of habitats.

12(3) #09
03 Aug 2009
Food Science and Technology
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Stability of the buttery aroma in gels prepared with instant or hot gelated potato and waxy maize starches was investigated with application of the chromatographic and sensory analyses. It was shown that persistence index of buttery aroma increased with higher concentration of studied starches and mostly in gels made with instant potato starch. The stability of buttery aroma was affected by viscosity (r ≥ 0.96) and consistency (r ≥ 0.93) and also ability of gels to hold water (r ≥ 0.72). The highest viscosity at shear rate of 3 (s-1) and consistency index, irrespective of thickener concentration, exhibited gels prepared with instant potato starch. The buttery aroma intensity of aromatized gels decreased with storage time particularly markedly in samples containing 1–3% starch.

12(3) #10
04 Aug 2009
Food Science and Technology
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The solution of commercial potato maltodextrines (with differential value of Dextrose Equivalent) and one laboratory maltodextrine produced from potato starches with artificial sweeteners were examined for retrogradation at temperature 8°C using a turbidometric analysis. As well all of the samples were investigated by determination on retrogradation flow curves and viscosity curves using a rotational rheometer Rheolab MC1. It was found, that addition artificial sweeteners to maltodextrines solutions as well as degree of starch's depolymerization have an influence on solutions' physicochemical properties. A value of Dextrose Equivalent and a kind of sweeteners changed value of turbididty and rheological parameters.

12(3) #11
05 Aug 2009
Food Science and Technology
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In this work selected physical and sensory properties of model mayonnaises containing 20 wt% oil and 0.1-0.6 wt% xanthan gum were compared. The mayonnaises were stabilized by modified maize starch, dried egg yolk or native egg yolk. The studies showed that mayonnaises formed with modified maize starch exhibited higher apparent viscosity than those made with egg yolks. All model low-fat mayonnaises containing 0.6 wt% thickener, showed 100% stability towards creaming. It was found that model low-fat mayonnaises made with modified maize starch revealed the highest whiteness index (W.I.) and the lowest total colour difference (ΔE) irrespective of xanthan gum concentration. Sensory analysis indicated that changes in colour and odour intensity depended on emulsifier type whereas texture parameters: consistency and adhesiveness on xanthan gum concentration. Therefore, it seems that modified maize starch demonstrating similar emulsifying properties to egg yolk may be utilized as its replacer being particularly useful to manufacture food with low cholesterol content.

12(3) #12
26 Aug 2009
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Three methods of application of growth inhibitors were tested in the cultivation of the French marigold: the soaking of seeds, spraying the medium a few days after seed sowing, and spraying the seedlings. Use was made of daminozide contained in the preparation B-Nine 85 SP at concentrations of 2550 and 4250 mg·dm-3 (0.3 and 0.5%), and metconazole contained in the preparation Caramba 60 SL at 300 and 600 mg·dm-3 (0.05 and 0.1%). The response of the plants depended on the kind, concentration and mode of application of the retardant. The soaking of seeds of the French marigold in solutions of the retardants, had an adverse effect on their germination. Soaking seeds in metconazole, spraying the medium with daminozide at a concentration of 2550 mg·dm-3 and with metconazole at 600 mg·dm-3, as well as spraying the seedlings with the retardants had an adverse effect on the flowering of the plants.

12(3) #13
28 Aug 2009
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The influence of Biosept 33 SL on healthiness of sweet pepper plants was examined. A field experiment was conducted in the years 2005, 2007, 2008 on a field in Zezulin. The object of study was sweet pepper plants of cultivar Ożarowska. Plants were sprayed and watered alternately using Biosept 33 SL. The mycological analyses showed that Biosept 33 SL influenced on the reduction of Fusarium oxysporum colony number and in part inhibited alternariosis on sweet pepper plants. Biosept 33 SL did not decreased the number of Fusarium equiseti and Colletotrichum coccodes on sweet pepper plants. The bio-preparation affected the Trichoderma spp. growth on roots and stem base at sweet pepper. The structural similarity between the fungal communities investigated was evaluated with SYNTAX 5.01.

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