Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2009
Volume 12
Issue 2
Topic:
Horticulture
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Janowska B. , Schroeter-Zakrzewska A. , Rybus-Zając M. 2009. EFFECT OF BENZYLADENINE AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF Anemone coronaria L. ‘Sylphide’, EJPAU 12(2), #08.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume12/issue2/art-08.html

EFFECT OF BENZYLADENINE AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF ANEMONE CORONARIA L. ‘SYLPHIDE’

Beata Janowska1, Anita Schroeter-Zakrzewska1, Magdalena Rybus-Zając2
1 Department of Ornamental Plants, University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Poland
2 Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

Before planting the tubers were soaked for 24 hours in water, benzyladenine, or gibberellic acid. Both growth regulators were applied at three concentrations: 50, 100 and 150 mg·dm-3. The use of benzyladenine accelerated the flowering of the poppy anemone 'Sylphide' by 3–7 days, and of gibberellic acid – by 11-16 days. The soaking of its tubers in gibberellic acid at 100 and 150 mg·dm-3 before planting caused the development of a greater number of flowers. Benzyladenine caused the formation of flowers with shorter pedicels, and gibberellic acid – with longer ones. The bigger flowers developed when the tubers had been soaked in the gibberellic acid at 50 mg·dm-3. The use of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid reduced the number of leaves formed by the tubers to one-third or one-fourth. Benzyladenine caused the development of leaves with shorter stalks and blades, while gibberellic acid caused the formation of leaves with longer stalks.

Key words: Anemone coronaria, growth, flowering, gibberellic acid, benzyladenine.

INTRODUCTION

The stiff competition on the Polish florist market forces gardeners to produce flowers of the highest quality so as to make them competitive with those brought from abroad. To this end an increasingly frequent use is made of growth regulators. Until recently, those most popular in the cultivation of cut flowers have come from the group of gibberellins; they have been employed, among other things, in the cultivation of the Gerbera [14], Cyclamen [17,28], Zantedeschia [8,9,10], Gladiolus [30], Rosa [15], and many other species. The latest attempts at improving both quality and flowering rely on cytokinins so far applied primarily in in vitro cultures.

In the present work an attempt was made to determine the effect of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine on the flowering of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide'.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Experiment was carried out in order to assess the growth and flowering of the poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria L.) 'Sylphide' after the application of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid.

Tubers were planted on 8 February 2008 into pots 13 cm in diameter in a medium consisting of a peat substrate with a pH of 6.2 enriched with a slow-release fertiliser Osmocote (3–4M) mixed with fresh crushed pine bark at 3:1 (v:v). Before planting the tubers were soaked for 24 hours in water, benzyladenine, or gibberellic acid. Both growth regulators were applied at three concentrations: 50, 100 and 150 mg·dm-3. In the case of gibberellic acid, use was made of Gibrescol 10 MG, a preparation in the form of microgranules, readily soluble in water and containing 10% of the pure component.

The experiment, arranged in a randomised block design, consisted of 7 combinations (growth regulator × concentration), each with three replications of 10 plants each. One combination included 30 plants.

The plants were fed starting with the fifth week of culture. Every 10–14 days solutions of mixed fertilisers, Peters Professional and brown Superba, were applied at 0.2%.

The parameters analysed included the earliness of flowering as expressed by the number of days from the planting of tubers to the flower harvest, the yield of cut flowers per tuber, the length of the peduncle, the diameter of the flower, the number of leaves, and their length and width.

The results were subjected to a bivariate analysis of variance, and the means were grouped using Duncan's test at the α = 0.05 significance level.

RESULTS

In the experiment conducted, the control plants came into bloom 99 days from the planting of tubers. The application of benzyladenine speeded up flowering only slightly, with the higher the BA concentration applied, the earlier the blooming. A much more substantial acceleration was achieved when the tubers had been soaked in gibberellic acid before planting. The plants that flowered the earliest, only 83 days after the planting of the tubers, were those in which GA3 had been applied at 50 mg·dm-3. In this combination the plants bloomed 16 days earlier than the control. After the application of GA3 at higher concentrations, the flowering was 11 and 13 days earlier, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1. Earliness of flowering of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide' depending on the concentration and kind of growth regulator (days)

Growth regulator

Concentration, mg·dm-3

0

50

100

150

BA

99 f

96 e

94d

92d

GA3

99 f

83 a

88 c

86 b

When comparing the size of the yield, significant differences were found depending on both, the growth regulator and its concentration. Contrary to expectations, the yield of cut flowers did not increase after the use of benzyladenine. Significantly more flowers were collected, in turn, from tubers soaked in gibberellic acid at 100 and 150 mg·dm-3, while the soaking of tubers in GA3 at 50 mg·dm-3 proved ineffective (Table 2).

Table 2. Yield and quality of cut flowers of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide' depending on the concentration and kind of growth regulator
 

Growth regulator

Concentration, mg·dm-3

0

50

100

150

mean for growth regulator

Yield of cut flowers

BA

2.3 a

2.5 a

2.2 a

2.1 a

2.3 a

GA3

2.3 a

2.5 a

5.1 b

5.2 b

3.6 b

Length of peduncle, cm

BA

35.7 b

28.2 a

28.7 a

30.9 a

30.9 a

GA3

35.7 b

40.0 c

41.5 c

45.1 d

40.6 b

mean for concentration

35.7 a

34.1 a

34.8 a

38.0 b

 

Flower diameter, cm

BA

5.9 b

5.0 a

6.3 b

6.5 b

5.9 a

GA3

5.9 b

7.0 c

6.4 b

6.5 b

6.4 b

Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the α = 0.05 level

In the experiment conducted, significant differences were found to occur in the length of the flower pedicel depending on both, the growth regulator and its concentration. The soaking of the tubers in benzyladenine at concentrations of 50 to 150 mg·dm-3 resulted in the development of flowers borne on shorter stalks, while soaking in gibberellic acid caused flowers to have longer stalks. They were the longest (by 26.3% in relation to the control) when the highest concentration of the acid (150 mg·dm-3) had been used (Table 2).

When comparing the diameters of flowers, significant differences were found to occur depending on both, the concentration and kind of the growth regulator. Significantly smaller flowers (by 10.2–15.2% in relation to the control) developed in plants whose tubers had been soaked in benzyladenine, irrespective of its concentration. Significantly bigger flowers developed when the tubers had been soaked in the growth regulators at concentrations of 100 and 150 mg·dm-3, irrespective of the regulator. When comparing interactions, the smallest flowers developed in plants whose tubers had been soaked in benzyladenine at 50 mg·dm-3, and the largest in those in which gibberellic acid at 50 mg·dm-3 had been used for soaking the tubers (Table 2).

A statistical analysis showed that the number of leaves growing from the tubers depended significantly only on the concentration of the growth regulators. With both of them at the concentrations tested, the tubers developed significantly fewer leaves than the control plants (Table 3).

Table 3. Number and quality of leaves of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide' depending on the concentration and kind of growth regulator
 

Growth regulator

Concentration, mg·dm-3

0

50

100

150

mean for growth regulator

Number of leaves

BA

28.5 b

9.4 a

7.1 a

8.3 a

13.3 a

GA3

28.5 b

7.2 a

8.7 a

8.8 a

13.3 a

Length of leaves, cm

BA

7.9 b

4.9 a

4.5 a

5.1 a

5.6 a

GA3

7.9 b

7.2 b

7.6 b

7.3 b

7.5 b

Length of
leaf-stalks, cm

BA

12.7 b

8.0 a

7.9 a

8.2 a

9.2 a

GA3

12.7 b

16.2 c

16.7 c

16.4 c

15.5 b

Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the α = 0.05 level

After the application of benzyladenine at 50–150 mg·dm-3 it was found that the developing leaves had significantly shorter blades and stalks than the control plants. In turn, soaking the tubers in gibberellic acid ended in the development of leaves with longer stalks (Table 3).

DISCUSSION

In the experiment conducted, the use of benzyladenine accelerated the flowering of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide' by 3–7 days, and of gibberellic acid – by 11–16 days. In a study by Janowska and Zakrzewski [11], gibberellic acid used to soak rhizomes and spray leaves retarded the flowering of the Zantedeschia with colourful spathes by 1–2 weeks, except the cultivar 'Cameo' in the first year of study in a combination in which the rhizomes planted had been soaked in GA3. In studies by Janowska [8] and Janowska and Krause [9], gibberellic acid retarded the flowering of the cultivars 'Pink Persuasion' and 'Sensation' by about 2 weeks and the cultivar 'Black Magic' [10]. In a research by Funnell and Tjia [6], the Zantedeschia bloomed even 3 weeks earlier after the application of gibberellic acid. Experiments by Nowak [17] showed that the use of gibberellic acid caused an earlier flowering of the Cyclamen. Also in Tulipa the application of GA3 shortened the pre-flowering period [13]. In a study by Pogroszewska and Sadkowska [21], the use of gibberellic acid hastened the flowering of the Astilbe × arendsii grown in an unheated plastic tunnel.

In a study by Tjia [27], an earlier flowering of the Zantedeschia elliottiana was achieved after the soaking of its rhizomes in a benzyladenine solution at 50–100 mg·dm-3 for 30 minutes. In turn, in the Dianthus caryophyllus 'Knight Hybrid Scarlet', benzyladenine at 200 mg·dm-3 retarded the flowering of pinched plants by 13 days, but had no effect on the number of days to flowering in non-pinched ones [5].

In the present experiment, the soaking of tubers of the Anemone coronaria in gibberellic acid at 100 and 150 mg·dm-3 before planting caused the development of a greater number of flowers. Contrary to expectations, however, there was no increase in the yield of cut flowers after the application of benzyladenine. When studying the effect of benzyladenine on Fosterella, Pytlewski and Hetman [22] showed that after spraying with BA the plants grew 50% more lateral shoots than the control. Also in Hebe buchananii treated with benzyladenine more lateral shoots developed, and of a greater weight [3].

There are no data in the available literature on the effect of gibberellic acid on the flowering of the Anemone coronaria. In the experiment by Janowska and Zakrzewski [11], in order to increase the yield of three cultivars of the Zantedeschia with colourful spathes, gibberellic acid at a concentration of 150 mg·dm-3 was used to soak their rhizomes and spray the leaves. The aim was achieved, but the soaking of rhizomes in a gibberellic acid solution was shown to have a stronger effect. The usefulness of gibberellic acid in the cultivation of the Zantedeschia with colourful spathes has been corroborated by many authors [1,4,7,8,9,10,23]. Gibberellic acid at concentrations of 10 to 150 mg·dm-3 also significantly increased the number of buds and flowers in Impatiens walleriana [24]. In Cyclamen, spraying with gibberellic acid not only initiated the growth of flower stems, but also greatly accelerated blooming and increased the number of flowers [17,26,28]. Gibberellic acid at concentrations of 200 mg·dm-3 and 400 mg·dm-3 also had an advantageous effect on the number of inflorescences of the Astilbe × arendsii grown in both, an unheated plastic tunnel and in the ground [21].

The use of the growth regulators for the soaking of tubers of the Anemone coronaria 'Sylphide' affected the quality of its cut flowers: benzyladenine caused the formation of flowers with shorter pedicels, and gibberellic acid · with longer ones. The smallest flowers developed in plants whose tubers had been soaked in benzyladenine at 50 mg·dm-3, and the largest, in those whose tubers had been soaked in gibberellic acid at 50 mg·dm-3.

In the case of the Hedera helix 'Brokamp', higher benzyladenine concentrations caused a very pronounced shortening of shoots and leaf blades. Main shoots of the cultivar under study were the shortest after the application of benzyladenine at 5 mg·dm-3 [16]. In experiments by Pogroszewska [19], benzyladenine affected the quality of inflorescences of the Spatyphyllum: at 750 mg·dm-3, BA caused the formation of longer peduncles and spathes in the cultivar 'Petite'. In experiments carried out by Song and Lee [25], the application of benzyladenine at the lowest concentration (250 mg·dm-3) brought about an increase in spathe width in the Spatyphyllum 'Castor'. In an experiment by Pogroszewska et al. [20], benzyladenine at 500 mg·dm-3 had no significant effect on the diameter of inflorescences in the Allium karataviense.

Piskornik and Piskornik [18] report that gibberellic acid contributes to the elongation of shoots of the Anemone coronaria. The authors observed the effect to be especially strong when gibberellic acid had a concentration of 100 mg·dm-3 in all the time periods examined. In time periods I and II significantly longer shoots were obtained in comparison with the control, also when the acid was applied at a concentration of 50 mg·dm-3. Moreover, the treatment of the plants with gibberellic acid improved the quality of flowers as assessed by their weight. In all the time periods examined, it was the highest in flowers collected from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid at 100 mg·dm-3 and higher in those treated with gibberellic acid at 50 mg·dm-3 in comparison with the control.

In the experiment by Janowska and Zakrzewski [2006] with the Zantedeschia with colourful spathes, the flowers that developed from rhizomes soaked in gibberellic acid had the longest peduncles in the cultivars 'Black Eyed Beauty' and 'Cameo', and the shortest in the cultivar 'Treasure'. When used to spray leaves, gibberellic acid produced the formation of longer spathes only in the cultivar 'Cameo'. The cultivar 'Treasure' had shorter spathes whether the acid had been applied to soak rhizomes or spray leaves.

It follows from the research by Janowska and Schroeter [10] that in the Zantedeschia ‘Black Magic’ an increase in the yield of flowers as a result of the application of gibberellic acid causes the flowers to develop on shorter peduncles, while the spathes are narrower than in the control plants. In turn, Dennis et al. [4] found GA3 to have an advantageous effect on the quality of Zantedeschia flowers when applied at 25 mg·dm-3.

In the present experiment, an assessment was also made of the effect of the growth regulators on the development of leaves. It was found that the use of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid restricted the development of leaves. Tubers soaked in the growth regulators developed one-third to one-fourth of the leaves formed by the control plants. Moreover, the leaves growing from benzyladenine-treated tubers had shorter stalks and blades. In turn, the use of gibberellic acid caused the formation of leaves with longer stalks.

Marcinek and Hetman [16] report that in the Hedera helix 'Brokamp' the application of benzyladenine did not affect the number of leaves. The plants were the least leafy when benzyladenine was used at 8 mg·dm-3, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, in this cultivar BA caused a dramatic shortening of shoots, leaf blades and leaf-stalks. At 750 and 1,000 mg·dm-3, however, it had a good effect on the number of leaves in the Spathiphyllum 'Petite' [19]. In turn, Wang and Boogher [29] report that benzyladenine inhibited the growth of the Syngonium and caused the development of half the number of leaves.

There are no data in the available literature on the effect of gibberellic acid on the number of leaves developing in the Anemone coronaria. The experiment conducted by Janowska and Zakrzewski [11] on Zantedeschia cultivars with colourful spathes showed that only the cultivar 'Cameo' developed fewer leaves in the second year of study as a result of the soaking of rhizomes in gibberellic acid. According to Corr and Widmer [2], in the Zantedeschia rehmannii the number of leaves developing from a rhizome depends primarily on the size of the rhizomes and not on their treatment with gibberellic acid. Also Jerzy and Janowska [12] claim that gibberellic acid does not affect the number of leaves growing from rhizomes in the Zantedeschia with colourful spathes.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The use of benzyladenine accelerated the flowering of the poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria) 'Sylphide' by 3–7 days, and of gibberellic acid – by 11–16 days.

  2. The soaking of tubers of the poppy anemone in gibberellic acid at 100 and 150 mg·dm-3 before planting, caused the development of a greater number of flowers.

  3. Benzyladenine caused the formation of flowers with shorter pedicels, and gibberellic acid – with longer ones.

  4. The bigger flowers developed when the tubers had been soaked in the gibberellic acid at 50 mg·dm-3.

  5. The use of benzyladenine and gibberellic acid reduced the number of leaves formed by the tubers to one-third or one-fourth.

  6. Benzyladenine caused the development of leaves with shorter stalks and blades.

  7. Gibberellic acid caused the formation of leaves with longer stalks.


REFERENCES

  1. Brooking J.R., Cohen D., 2002. Gibberellin-induced flowering in small tubers of Zantedeschia 'Black Magic'. Sci. Hortic. 95, 63–67.

  2. Corr B. E., Widmer R. E., 1991. Paclobutrazol, gibberellic acid and rhizome size affect growth and flowering of Zantedeschia. Hort Sci. 26(2), 133–135.

  3. Dąbski M., Parzymies M., Oleś A., 2006. Wpływ rodzaju i stężenia cytokinin na namnażanie Hebe buchananii (Hook) i Hebe canterburiensis (J.B. Armstr.) 'Prostrata' in vitro [Influences of cytokinins on proliferation of Hebe buchananii (Hook) and Hebe canterburiensis (J.B. Armstr.) 'Prostrata' in vitro]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 510, 137–142 [in Polish].

  4. Dennis D., Doreen D. J., Ohteki T., 1994. Effect of a gibberellic acid 'quick-dip' and storage on the yield and quality of blooms from hybrid Zantedeschia tubers. Sci. Hortic. 57, 133–142.

  5. Foley J.T., Keever G.J., 1991. Growth regulators and pruning alter growth and axillary shoot develpoment of Dianthus. J. Environ. Hort. 9(4), 191–195.

  6. Funnell K. A., Tjia B. O., 1988. Effect of storage temperature, duration and gibberellic acid on thy flowering of Zantedeschia elliottiana and Z. 'Pink Satin'. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 113(6), 860–863.

  7. Funnell K.A., MacKay B.R., Lawoko C.R.O., 1992. Comparative effect of promalin and GA3 on flowering and development of Zantedeschia 'Galaxy'. Acta Hortic. 292, 173–179.

  8. Janowska B., 2002. Kwas giberelinowy w uprawie cantedeskii o barwnych pochwach kwiatostanowych [The gibberellic acid on the cultivation of colourful spathes Zantedeschia]. Biuletyn SPORC 13, 25–27 [in Polish].

  9. Janowska B., Krause J., 2001. Wpływ traktowania bulw kwasem giberelinowym na kwitnienie cantedeskii [The influence of tuber treatment by gibberellic acid on flowering of Zantedeschia]. Rocz. AR Poznań, Ogrodn. 33, 61–67 [in Polish].

  10. Janowska B., Schroeter A., 2002. Wpływ kwasu giberelinowego na kwitnienie cantedeskii Elliota (Zantedeschia Elliottiana /W. Wats./ Engl.) 'Black Magic' [The influence of gibberellic acid on flowering of Zantedeschia elliottiana /W. Wats./ Engl.]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 483, 93–99. [in Polish].

  11. Janowska B., Zakrzewski P., 2006. Wpływ kwasu giberelinowego i sposobu przygotowania kłączy na kwitnienie cantedeskii (Zantedeschia Spreng.) [The effect of giberellic acid and rhizome treatment on flowering of Zantedeschia Spreng.]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln., cz. I,  510, 223–233 [in Polish].

  12. Jerzy M., Janowska B., 2003. Wzrost i kwitnienie cantedeskii Elliota (Zantedeschia elliottiana / W. Wats./ Engl.) uprawianej z sadzonek traktowanych kwasem giberelinowym in vitro [Growth and flowering of Zantedeschia elliottiana / W. Wats./ Engl. cultivated from cutting treated in vitro with gibberellic acid]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 491, 125–130 [in Polish].

  13. Krause J., Borejsza-Wysocki W., 1981. Wpływ długości okresu chłodzenia cebul i terminu stosowania giberelin na wzrost i kwitnienie tulipanów [The effect of cooling bulbs by length of the period and applying the date of gibberellic acid of the growth and flowering of tulips]. PTNO. WNRiL Prace Komisji Nauk Rolniczych i Komisji Nauk Leśnych, LI, 161–168 [in Polish].

  14. Lisiecka A., Janowska B., 1993. Wpływ tytanitu i gibereliny na kwitnienie gerbery [The effect of tytanit and gibberellic acid on the flowering of gerbera]. Materiały z sympozjum. "Nowe rośliny i technologie w ogrodnictwie". Poznań, 30–34 [in Polish].

  15. Łukaszewska A., 1991. Regulatory wzrostu w uprawie róż [Growth regulators on the cultivation of roses]. Ogrodnictwo 4, 22–23 [in Polish].

  16. Marcinek B., Hetman J., 2006. Wpływ cytokinin na namnażanie in vitro bluszczu pospolitego (Hedera helix L.) 'Brokamp' [The influence of cytokinins upon the in vitro  propagation of Hedera helix L. 'Brokamp']. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 510, 351–357 [in Polish].

  17. Nowak J., 2000. Wpływ różnych preparatów zawierających kwas giberelinowy na wzrost i kwitnienie cyklamena i gerbery The effect of different preparations containing gibberellic acid on the growth and flowering of cyklamen and gerbera]. Zeszyty Naukowe ISiK, Skierniewice, 7, 259–263 [in Polish].

  18. Piskornik M., Piskornik Z., 1995. Wpływ dawki i terminu stosowania kwasu giberelinowego na jakość kwiatów zawilca wieńcowatego (Anemone coronaria L.) uprawianego w gruncie [Influence of the dose and date gibberellic acid applying on the quality of Anemone coronaria grown in the ground]. Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna. "Fizjologiczne aspekty produkcji ogrodniczej". Kraków, 101–104 [in Polish].

  19. Pogroszewska E., 2002. Studia nad wzrostem i kwitnieniem skrzydłokwiatu (Spathiphyllum Schott) [A study on the growth and flowering of Spathiphyllum Schott]. Rozprawy Naukowe AR w Lublinie. Zeszyt 263, 72–95 [in Polish].

  20. Pogroszewska E., Laskowska H., Durlak W., 2007. The effect of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine on the yield of Allium karataviense Regel.'Ivory Queen'. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus 6(1), 15–19.

  21. Pogroszewska E., Sadkowska P., 2006. Wpływ kwasu giberelinowego na kwitnienie tawułki Arendsa (Astilbe × aredndsii Arends) uprawianej na kwiat cięty w nieogrzewanym tunelu foliowym i w polu [The influence of gibberellic acid on flowering of Astilbe × aredndsii Arends cultivated for cut flowers in unheated plastic tunnel and in the field]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 510, 497–505 [in Polish].

  22. Pytlewski C., Hetman J., 1985. The effect of growth regulators on development of lateral shoots in Fosterella penduliflora. Acta Hortic. 167, 327–332.

  23. Reiser R.A., Langhans R.W., 1992. Cultivation of Zantedeschia species for potted plant production. Acta Hortic. 337, 87–94.

  24. Schroeter-Zakrzewska A., Janowska B., 2007. Wpływ kwasu giberelinowego na wzrost i kwitnienie niecierpka Walleriana (Impatiens walleriana Hook.) z grupy Spellboung [The effect of gibberellic acid on growth and flowering of Impatiens walleriana Hook. From the Spellbound group]. Rocz. AR Pozn. CCCLXXXIII, Ogrodn. 41, 195–200.

  25. Song C.Y., Lee J.S., 1995. Effect of growth regulators on growth and flowering of potted camellia. J. Korean Society for Hort. Science 36(1), 98–106.

  26. Thomas P. A., Coorts G. D., Preece J. E., 1983. Phthalimides, gibberellic acid, and flowering of Cyclamen. HortScience 18(5), 752–753.

  27. Tjia B., 1986. Growth and flowering of container – grown calla lily as affected by growth regulating chemicals. Proc. Inter. Soc. Trop. Hort. 30, 159–163.

  28. Treder J., Matysiak B., Nowak J., 1999. Przyspieszanie kwitnienia cyklamenów przy użyciu kwasu giberelinowego [Accelerating of flowering of cyclamens with gibberellic acid]. Materiały konferencji: "Postęp w produkcji roślin doniczkowych i rabatowych". Skierniewice, 6–10 [in Polish].

  29. Wang Y. T., Boogher C. A., 1987. Effect of stock plant shading, developmental stage and cytokinin on growth and lateral branching of Syngonium 'White Butterfly'. Scientia Hortic. 33, 137–145.

  30. Zalewska M., Woźny A., 2005. Wpływ kwasu giberelinowego na kwitnienie mieczyków w uprawie szklarniowej [Effect of gibberellic acid on gladiolus flowering in glasshouse culture]. Zesz Probl. Post. Nauk Roln. 504, 351–356 [in Polish].

Accepted for print: 30.04.2009


Beata Janowska
Department of Ornamental Plants,
University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Poland
Dąbrowskiego 159, 50-594 Poznań, Poland
email: beataj@up.poznan.pl

Anita Schroeter-Zakrzewska
Department of Ornamental Plants,
University of Life Sciences in Poznań, Poland
Dąbrowskiego 159, 50-594 Poznań, Poland
email: anitazak@up.poznan.pl

Magdalena Rybus-Zając
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
Wołyńska 35
60-637 Poznań
Poland

Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.