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Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.

Volume 11
Issue 1
Topic:
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
. , EJPAU 11(1), #18.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume11/issue1/art-18.html


 

ABSTRACT

The studies were conducted on 27 bovine larynges (13 young and 14 adult ones). After staining in 10% formaldehyde solution, anatomical dissection using standard set of surgical equipment was performed. Morphological observations as well as numerical, angular and surface measurements were made. The measurements were made using Multiscan, a system of a computer analysis of  pictures. Several basic size parameters and several indicators, calculated on the base of them have been considered. The results were analyzed statistically using t-Student test at the significance level α=0,05.

Statistically significant differences between genders of the studied specimens were stated, as well as in young and in adult ones and almost all of size parameters were greater in male than in female specimens. Among basic size parameters in young animals there were: the thyroid cartilage angle and the size of intercartilaginous part of true glottis. In adult ones there were: the span of the anterior as well as posterior horns of the thyroid cartilage, the superior horn length, the thyroid cartilage length and the arytenoid cartilage width. The influence of age was important in almost all basic size parameters. The analysis of relative parameters (indicators) showed that proportions of the larynx, as well as minor and the adult animals, are determined by sex, not by age.

Conclusion of the research is that a certain sexual dimorphism in cattle larynx is present. It is clearly visible just in young animals, however it transforms during maturation process which could be named “the mutation”, as it is described in humans.

Key words: .

INTRODUCTION

Anatomy of the animal larynx, however thoroughly described in textbooks [1,4], is not sufficiently studied as far as their dimensions, proportions and postnatal development are concerned. In opposite a whole range of measuring data characterizing human larynx was gathered in the last few years [6,13]. A range of work from functional and clinical larynx anatomy is carried out also on animals, however without previous thorough anatomical study, especially measurements [3,5,13]. In order to fill this gap some authors undertook their researches [7,8,11,14], however there are no studies available in literature concerning larynx anatomy during animal development period. Acquaintance of these changes would facilitate interpretation of some results of experimental research founded on modelling of larynx action and would be valuable for those planning research experiments with utilization of animal models.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The research was conducted on 27 cattle larynges (13 minors and 14 adults). The division of the cattle into minors and adults was done according to textbook data concerning the start of adolescence at 6-9 months of life [1]. Calves and heifers were from12 to16 weeks old, cows and bulls were old breeding animals.

Larynges used for the study were taken from a slaughterhouse where cattle were routinely slaughtered. Therefore, the approval of Bioethical Commission was not needed.

After collecting the larynges were fixed in a 10% solution of formaldehyde for 6 weeks, then they were prepared using a standard set of microsurgical instruments. Methods of work were to do morphological observations and execution of a range of linear, angular and surface measurements. In anatomical description the official anatomical terms cited in suitable textbooks have been considered [10, 12]. The measurements were performed using computer system of image analysis MULTISCAN.

In order to achieve objective values of the measurements, an arithmetic average was calculated () marking the minimum and the maximum parameters of the studied larynges as well as the standard deviation (SD). The results were analysed statistically using t-Student test with α =0.05. The averages differed significantly when│temp│>t α,υ; t 0.05, 11= 2.201.

The studied basic parameters have been shown below on Figs. 1-4.

Fig. 1. The thyroid cartilage measurement scheme

Fig. 2. The cricoid cartilage measurement scheme

Fig. 3. The arytenoid cartilage measurement scheme (left side) and the epiglottic cartilage measurement scheme (right side)

Fig. 4. Whole larynx measurement scheme

They were:

  1. The thyroid cartilage

  1. craniocaudal dimension of the plate in a medial line

  2. distance between overhead / front corners

  3. distance between back corners

  4. width at the level of laryngeal prominence (if there is no maximum width)

  5. maximum height of the plate

  6. length of the front corner

  7. length of the back corner

  8. maximum craniocaudal dimension

  9. angle between the plates

  1. The cricoid cartilage

  1. width of the cricoid cartilage at the central point of the cricoarytenoid joint capsule

  2. craniocaudal dimension of the arch in a medial line

  3. craniocaudal dimension of the plate in a medial line

  4. external fibular dimension measured at the edge of caudal cartilage

  5. surface of the internal contour (lumen) of the cricoid cartilage

  6. distance between the central point of the cricothyroid joint capsule and the ventral pole of the cricoid cartilage in a medial line

  7. the angle created by the above line with the fibular plane

  8. distance between the central point of the cricoarytenoid joint capsule and the ventral pole of the cricoid cartilage in a medial line

  9. the angle created by the above line with the fibular plane

  1. The arytenoid cartilage

  1. total height measured from the base to the top

  2. distance between the top of the vocal process and the cente of the cricoid capsule

  3. distance between the top of the muscular process and the cente of the cricoid capsule

  1. The epiglottic cartilage

  1. maximum height

  2. maximum width

  1. Whole larynx dimensions

  1. craniocaudal dimension of the whole larynx (from the top of the epiglottic cartilage to the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage)

  2. length of the membranous part of the true glottis

  3. length of the intercartilaginous part of the true glottis

Table 1. Indicators characterising individual proportions of larynx structures

successive parameter

way of calculating

description

   

The thyroid cartilage

1

1f/1h

height of the top corner to total height of the thyroid cartilage

2

1g/1h

height of the bottom corner to total height of the thyroid cartilage

3

1h/1d

height of the thyroid cartilage to its width

4

1h/5a

height of the thyroid cartilage to the height of the whole larynx

5

1b/1c

Top corners span to bottom corners span of the thyroid cartilage

   

The cricoid cartilage

6

2c/2d

Height of the plate to fibular dimension of the cricoid cartilage

7

2b/2d

Height of the arch to fibular dimension of the cricoid cartilage

8

2f/2d

Distance of the surface of the cricoid joint from the arch to fibular dimension of the cricoid cartilage

9

2h/2d

Distance of the surface of the arytenoid joint from the arch to fibular dimension of the cricoid cartilage

10

2c/5a

Height of the plate to height of the whole larynx

11

2a/2d

Width of the cricoid cartilage to its fibular dimension

   

The arytenoid cartilage

12

3b/3a

Length of the vocal process to height of the arytenoid cartilage

13

3c/3a

Length of the muscle process to height of the arytenoid cartilage

14

3a/5a

Height of the the arytenoid cartilage to height of the whole larynx

   

The arytenoid cartilage

15

4a/4b

Height of the the arytenoid cartilage to its width

16

4a/5a

Height of the the arytenoid cartilage to height of the whole larynx

   

True glottis

17

5b/5c

The relation of the membranous part of the true glottis to the intercartilaginous part of the true glottis

On the base of initial size parameters convenient indicators were calculated larynges referring to age and sex. The list of indicators is shown in Table 1.

RESULTS

Cattle larynges are characterised by considerable width (Fig. 5, 6, 7) resulting both from the shape of the thyroid cartilage (cartilago thyroidea) and the cricoid cartilage (cartilago cricoidea). The thyroid cartilage is quite wide and low. Front and back corners (cornu anterius et posterius) are well-shaped. The back corner is hood curved to the centre. The result is that the distance between the front corners is similar to the one between the back corners. The thyroid fissure (incisura thyroidea anterior) does not exist. The back thyroid fissure (incisura thyroidea posterior) is shallow. In its area there is a clear, wide and low laryngeal prominence (prominentia laryngea). The thyroid cartilage plates (laminae cartilaginis thyroideae) make a clear angle close to 90°. The cricoid cartilage is seal ring-shaped (Fig. 8) with a low plate (lamina cartilaginis cricoideae) and considerably high arch (arcus cartilaginis cricoideae). The arytenoid joint surface (facies articularis arytenoidea) is convex, of significant size and ellipse-shaped. The thyroid joint surface (facies articularis thyroidea) occurs as a very shallow hollow, as the cricothyroid joint (articulatio cricothyroidea) is a syndesmosis, without a real joint cavity. Whereas the cricoarytenoid joint (articulatio cricoarytenoidea) has a quite big joint cavity and a thick spacious joint capsule (capsula articularis).

Fig. 5. Cattle larynx. Right side. The thyroid cartilage plate removed on the right side. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. front corner of the thyroid cartilage, 2. symphysis of the plates of the thyroid cartilage, 3. 4-cornered membrane, 4. elastic cone, 5. vocal process of the right arytenoid cartilage, 6. trachea, 7. stump of the back process of the thyroid cartilage

Fig. 6. The thyroid cartilage of a heifer. Stomach view. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. front corner, 2. plate, 3. back corner, 4. back thyroid incisure

Fig. 7. The thyroid cartilage of a heifer. Front view. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. plate, 2. internal surface of the plate symphysis, 3. front corner

Fig. 8. The cricoid cartilage of the cattle. Left side view. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. arch, 2. plate crest, 3 the arytenoid joint area, 4. the cricoarytenoid syndesmosis area

The arythenoid cartilages (cartilagines arytenoideae) are high, sleek, with well developed cone-shaped processes. However, the difference between the hyaline cartilage of the arytenoid cartilage and the elastic one of the corniculate cortilage (vartilago corniculata) is unclear. The muscle process (processus muscularis) is very short and there is a spacious concave cricoid joint area (facies articularis cricoidea) to the back of it. The vocal process (processus vocalis) is long, cone-shaped and strong (Fig. 9). The epiglottic cartilage (cartilago epiglottica) is low and wide. It does not make even half of the perimeter, however it possesses a clearly shaped and prominently put forward pedicle (Fig. 10).

Fig. 9. Left arytenoid cartilage of cattle, medial view. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. cone process, 2. vocal process, 3. cricoarytenoid ligament, 4. the cricoid joint area, 5. muscle process

Fig. 10. Epiglottis of a heifer larynx. Right back view. Centimetre measure. Marking: 1. free edge of the epiglottis, 2. pedicle, 3. larynx surface

Fig. 11. Comparison of size structures of larynges of minor and adult cattle. Centimetre measure. Marking: A. the thyroid cartilage, B. the cricoid cartilage, C. the epiglottic cartilage, D. the arytenoid cartilage, 1. adult , 2 minor

The elastic cone (conus elasticus) and the thyroarytenoid muscle (musculus thyroarytenoideus) are strongly developed (Fig 5). The parenchyma of this muscle is 1 cm wide. There is no space between bottom edge of the thyroid cartilage and the ring of the cricoid one (Fig.5). The attachment of the vocal ligament (ligamentum vocale) lies low, just above the bottom edge of the thyroid cartilage.

The results of the measurements of cattle larynges are shown in Table 2. Significant influence of sex on size parameters included in the table was proved when α = 0.05. Important differences between minor males and females were found for the following parameters: 1i and 5c, whereas for adults the differences were found for 1b, 1c, 1f, 1h, 4b.

Table 2. The results of the measurements of the selected size parameters of bovine larynges. The results in relation to parameters 1i, 2g and 2i are in mm2, the rest in mm

parametr

minors n=13

adults n=14

males n=7

females n=6

 

males n=7

females n=6

 

SD

min

max

SD

min

max

temp

SD

min

max

SD

min

max

temp

1a

59.52a

5.16

54.82

69.16

56.08a

4.65

51.94

64.12

0.871

70.43a

8.75

62.32

84.66

64.08a

4.53

59.91

73.12

1.597

1b

58.24a

4.28

51.34

63.42

56.14a

5.06

47.33

62.13

0.811

69.39a

10.11

57.19

81.23

54.65b

4.09

46.09

59.19

3.554

1c

58.51a

5.28

52.03

68.37

56.98a

9.84

46.23

74.70

0.357

67.44a

7.69

57.34

76.96

50.56b

5.74

41.21

57.16

4.530

1d

85.95a

9.48

70.12

98.64

76.96a

6.81

72.11

89.97

1.930

101.3a

16.15

80.34

125.9

89.61a

10.31

75.22

105.6

1.581

1e

66.42a

3.79

62.34

72.83

66.19a

5.39

60.72

75.34

0.090

83.78a

9.77

71.43

96.12

77.02a

6.16

70.13

86.20

1.517

1f

14.91a

2.44

12.33

18.43

16.14a

4.43

10.23

22.87

0.634

23.07a

5.31

16.23

31.77

17.75b

3.32

13.24

22.01

2.204

1g

32.95a

3.26

29.64

38.64

30.79a

3.21

25.30

35.23

1.119

40.40a

8.95

31.46

54.87

32.97a

4.18

26.71

40.12

1.970

1h

92.62a

10.95

79.38

114.6

91.74a

12.53

82.45

115.7

0.135

122.1a

22.51

91.20

156.5

100.6b

8.44

92.31

111.7

2.355

1i

78.41a

8.50

69.71

94.73

91.17b

3.43

87.96

97.20

3.428

88.93a

5.60

82.17

96.43

94.83a

6.81

88.72

109.1

1.687

2a

37.61a

3.61

32.27

43.75

36.71a

3.86

32.42

42.18

0.434

42.22a

5.60

34.28

49.89

44.19a

7.39

36.92

56.13

0.533

2b

17.15a

2.12

13.90

20.08

16.01a

2.87

11.89

19.87

0.823

19.41a

2.85

16.72

23.75

19.23a

5.75

14.08

28.70

0.069

2c

51.66a

7.03

43.53

65.23

49.88a

7.24

42.12

59.10

0.449

62.64a

8.78

50.12

72.90

58.23a

4.23

53.24

64.42

1.184

2d

74.13a

6.66

64.48

82.79

73.71a

5.66

66.70

82.34

0.121

88.68a

11.56

74.53

105.8

86.60a

6.91

78.12

97.13

0.401

2e

1587a

326.4

1029

1970

1467a

216

1135

1776

0.766

1991a

410

1468

2525

1780a

127

1542

1938

1.299

2f

52.91a

4.41

45.48

58.91

52.42a

4.10

47.24

58.32

0.206

66.73a

8.13

57.23

78.06

60.73a

5.68

55.83

72.89

1.562

2g

30.28a

1.62

28.66

33.21

33.22a

3.61

30.45

38.91

1.948

34.22a

1.50

31.69

36.02

32.91a

1.63

30.09

34.82

1.497

2h

69.53a

4.34

63.48

75.70

70.34a

5.85

63.85

78.83

0.286

84.25a

10.22

71.92

97.97

81.25a

6.52

75.86

94.15

0.641

2i

20.60a

1.86

18.46

23.77

20.57a

1.77

18.84

23.45

0.030

20.21a

1.81

18.16

23.36

21.08a

1.20

19.67

22.43

1.037

3a

36.82a

3.22

32.85

42.31

38.86a

4.33

32.54

45.62

0.974

43.08a

6.25

36.21

52.14

41.70a

3.75

37.12

46.88

0.491

3b

29.69a

2.63

26.68

33.12

27.69a

2.76

24.56

32.80

1.336

34.43a

6.45

27.82

44.60

33.47a

4.69

27.31

40.14

0.310

3c

9.25a

1.26

7.88

11.23

8.32a

1.35

6.71

10.36

1.284

11.18a

2.82

8.41

15.74

9.49a

1.07

8.01

11.16

1.475

4a

42.93a

3.18

37.77

46.12

41.87a

2.97

37.02

45.70

0.617

52.03a

8.06

40.34

64.21

47.95a

3.68

45.02

55.19

1.207

4b

47.80a

4.62

40.11

54.78

45.62a

5.02

40.52

55.21

0.815

60.13a

7.92

50.62

72.88

47.71b

4.84

40.52

54.59

3.474

5a

129.7a

11.09

110.3

141.9

120.0a

8.99

107.3

132.4

1.711

148.6a

22.67

130.2

180.4

141.6a

15.28

123.9

167.5

0.062

5b

27.26a

3.67

23.66

34.25

29.59a

4.32

25.76

36.70

1.052

36.60a

5.94

28.97

46.08

34.79a

3.24

31.83

39.91

0.697

5c

37.96a

3.41

32.50

42.36

29.55b

3.00

26.07

33.28

4.680

40.70a

7.76

31.21

52.83

34.73a

2.81

30.96

37.50

1.906

t 0.05, 11= 2.201

t 0.05, 11= 2.201

Table 3. The results of calculations of indicators characterizing proportions of bovine larynges grouped according to age and sex

successive indicator

way of calculating

minors n=13

adults n=14

males n=7

females n=6

 

males n=7

females n=7

 

SD

min

max

SD

min

max

temp

SD

min

max

SD

min

max

temp

The thyroid

cartilage

                                   

1

1f/1h

0.16a

0.04

0.11

0.21

0.17a

0.03

0.12

0.20

0.502

0.19a

0.01

0.18

0.20

0.18a

0.04

0.13

0.21

0.643

2

1g/1h

0.36a

0.06

0.27

0.44

0.34a

0.06

0.27

0.42

0.599

0.33a

0.02

0.29

0.35

0.33a

0.05

0.29

0.42

0.0

3

1h/1d

1.09a

0.20

0.88

1.40

1.19a

0.09

1.09

1.29

1.126

1.20a

0.04

1.14

1.24

1.13b

0.07

1.05

1.23

2.297

4

1h/5a

0.72a

0.09

0.63

0.84

0.76a

0.09

0.67

0.87

0.799

0.81a

0.08

0.70

0.87

0.72a

0.09

0.62

0.84

1.997

5

1b/1c

1.00a

0.11

0.91

1.18

1.01a

0.19

0.78

1.23

0.118

1.03a

0.06

0.92

1.08

1.09a

0.06

1.00

1.17

1.870

The cricoid

cartilage

                                   

6

2c/2d

0.70a

0.07

0.58

0.79

0.67a

0.06

0.60

0.76

0.821

0.71a

0.03

0.67

0.74

0.67a

0.04

0.63

0.74

2.116

7

2b/2d

0.23a

0.02

0.22

0.27

0.22a

0.03

0.16

0.24

0.718

0.22a

0.02

0.20

0.24

0.22a

0.06

0.18

0.31

0.0

8

2f/2d

0.72a

0.06

0.62

0.78

0.71a

0.04

0.64

0.77

0.346

0.75a

0.01

0.74

0.77

0.70a

0.06

0.63

0.77

2.175

9

2h/2d

0.94a

0.04

0.88

0.98

0.95a

0.03

0.91

0.98

0.502

0.95a

0.02

0.93

0.97

0.94a

0.03

0.91

0.97

0.733

10

2c/5a

0.40a

0.06

0.35

0.49

0.41a

0.04

0.37

0.47

0.346

0.41a

0.03

0.37

0.45

0.41a

0.03

0.38

0.45

0.0

11

2a/2d

0.51a

0.02

0.48

0.53

0.50a

0.03

0.46

0.53

0.717

0.48a

0.01

0.46

0.49

0.51a

0.06

0.46

0.60

1.304

The arytenoid

cartilage

                                   

12

3b/3a

0.81a

0.06

0.71

0.91

0.72b

0.07

0.61

0.83

2.498

0.80a

0.05

0.74

0.86

0.81a

0.14

0.59

0.96

0.178

13

3c/3a

0.25a

0.03

0.20

0.28

0.21b

0.02

0.19

0.23

2.772

0.26a

0.04

0.21

0.30

0.23a

0.04

0.20

0.28

1.403

14

3a/5a

0.28a

0.02

0.26

0.32

0.32b

0.03

0.26

0.35

2.870

0.27a

0.01

0.27

0.28

0.30b

0.02

0.27

0.34

3.549

The epiglottic

cartilage

                                   

15

4a/4b

0.90a

0.08

0.82

1.01

0.92a

0.09

0.83

1.06

0.424

0.86a

0.05

0.80

0.91

1.01b

0.10

0.90

1.13

3.549

16

4a/5a

0.33a

0.03

0.30

0.37

0.35a

0.02

0.32

0.38

1.386

0.35a

0.03

0.31

0.37

0.34a

0.03

0.30

0.38

0.624

True

glottis

                                   

17

5b/5c

0.72a

0.09

0.58

0.81

1.01b

0.14

0.80

1.14

4.515

0.92a

0.19

0.74

1.11

1.00a

0.08

0.90

1.12

1.030

Most of the basic parameters was significantly correlated, therefore the bigger is the size of the larynx, the bigger its particular elements became.

The calculated indicators are shown in Table 3. Analysis of the data included in the tables showed that sex had a significant influence on some of them. Age did not influence these proportions. The influence of sex was true for the following parameters 12, 13, 14 and 17 for minors and 3, 14, 15 in adults.

DISCUSSION

Anatomical description of bovine larynx, made in this work, is generally in agreement with available textbooks [4,9], however it yields some new data, especially as far as the soft structures (elastic cone, muscles) are concerned. All the measurements of the larynx cartilages, their proportions and reciprocal relations are however a novelty and hadn't been cited in available literature.

The statistical analysis of the results of the larynx measurements showed that some of the size parametres (1b, 1c, 1f, 1h, 1i, 4b and 5c) were significantly different between groups distinguished according to sex. In all the cases both for minors and adults higher values of the parameters were observed for males, except for 1i which showed higher value for females. Therefore the angle of the thyroid cartilage was significantly bigger for females, as it is observed in humans [5,6]. The length of the thyroid cartilage measured in the median line (1a), distance between the front corners (1b), distance between the back corners (1c), maximum width of the thyroid cartilage (1d) and height of the back corner (1g) show that the male thyroid cartilage is generally wider than that of females.

Analysis of the data in Table 3 showed that significant influence on larynx proportions applied only to sex, therefore age does not have any influence on larynx proportions. The influence of gender applied to 12, 13, 14, 17 for minors and 3, 14, 15 for adults. Therefore one could state that in young individuals proportions of arytenoid cartilage and rima glottidis differ males and females. In adult animals these differences however are not significant. The only one parameter significantly differ male and female larynges in both age groups: it is a relative height of arytenoid cartilage.

CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of the conducted research it is possible to state that cattle laryges present sexual dimorphism, characterized by several basic linear as well as angular parameters and by several proportions. The proportions, however, which differ the genders, are not the same in young and adult animals, so certain important changes in laryngeal framework during maturation process occur.

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Accepted for print: 29.02.2008



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