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Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.

Volume 10
Issue 2
Topic:
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
. , EJPAU 10(2), #14.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume10/issue2/art-14.html


 

ABSTRACT

Under estimation came 1106 purebred Arabian mares, fillies, stallions and colts, who in the years 2001-2005 participated in Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows, as well as in the International Show at Falborek 2004 and 2005. Compared were such traits, as type, head and neck, body and topline, legs, movement and a total point score. In the tested population separated were damlines differring to a significant or a highly significant degree from other ones in terms of point scores for the specified traits. It was found, that total point scores were similar for all damlines, especially for the traits “body” and “legs”.

Key words: .

INTRODUCTION

The Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses is based on female material descending from desert-bred mares or foundation dams bred for centuries in purity of blood [8]. They established damlines, exerting a strong influence on subsequent generations of the Polish broodmares’ band [2]. According to requirements of the “Breeding Program for Purebred Arabian Horses in Poland” [7], Polish breeders are obliged to preserve and continue 15 damlines created throughout 200 years. As selection criteria for that breed treated are also results achieved in shows of different rank, as Poland, Europe or World Championships.

The research of our team, conducted for about 20 years on Polish Arabian horses, proved, that many traits in that breed are inherited in a different way than in other breeds. Already Bedouins laid great emphasis on valuable dams, passing on many features typical and important for Arabian horse breed and our scientific work proved, that they were right. In Polish studs raised were outstanding mares, with a high use value, a model conformation or distinguished as dams to renowned leading sires [1, 3, 10]. In the present paper we continue our research on that subject, conducted for many years [4].

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Under evaluation came purebred Arabian mares and stallions raised at State Studs Białka, Janów Podlaski, Kurozwęki and Michałów, as well as at private studs, taking part in Polish National Arabian Horse Show held at Janów Podlaski, Spring Youth Show at Białka in the years 2001-2005 and in Falborek Championships in the years 2004-2005. Tested were 1106 mares, fillies, stallions and colts fulfilling the assumed requirements. For the analysis taken were point scores given for each horse by three judges for the following traits: type, head and neck, body and topline, legs and movement, whereas the final point score was computed as the average value of separate assessments. For each trait all judged horses could get from 1 to 20 points, whereas the maximum total score must fall within 100 points [5].

Analysed were also pedigrees of the tested population, in order to assign starting horses to 13 damlines active in Poland, representing from 21 to 240 heads each. Damlines with too low numbers of representatives, as of Adjuze DB, Bent-El-Arab DB or Karima (from Egypt), were withdrawn because of too low comparability with others.

For the specified damlines computed were such indices, as:average point scores for separate traits (x), significance of differences between them, minimum (Mn) and maximum (Mx) levels of the traits, values of the standard deviation (S) and coefficients of variability (V%). The significance of differences between the average point scores for separate traits in specified damlines was determined, using the unifactorized analysis of variance and Duncan`s multiple range test [6, 9].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As far, as the trait “type” is concerned, the best results were achieved by the representatives of families of Rodania DB, Semrie DB, Milordka and Scherife DB, although their advantage wasn’t too high. On the other hand, the lowest levels of that trait, to a significant or highly significant degree in relation to others, were shown in the families of Wołoszka and Cherifa DB. The highest equalization in terms of the trait “type” was observed in the family of Scherife DB, whereas the highest variability of point scores for that trait was found in the family of Semrie DB (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of average point scores for the trait “type” in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average point scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

18.40AB

0.73

3.99

20

17

2.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

18.39CD

0.86

4.66

20

16

3.

Milordka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

215

18.38EF

0.85

4.62

20

16

4.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

18.38GH

0.62

3.39

20

17

5.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

18.33aI

0.74

4.04

20

17

6.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

18.24J

0.69

3.80

20

16

7.

Szweykowska born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

18.23K

0.82

4.51

20

15

8.

Mlecha db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

18.21L

0.77

4.22

20

15

9.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

18.20Ł

0.77

4.22

20

16

10.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

18.17M

0.68

3.76

19

16

11.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

18.17N

0.66

3.65

20

16

12.

Wołoszka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

65

18.03AaCEG

0.70

3.86

20

16

13.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

17.84BDFHIJKLŁMN

0.78

4.37

20

16

n – number of starts in shows,
Significant differences – small letters,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

For the trait “head and neck” the highest average marks were granted to horses from the families Semrie DB and Milordka, whereas the lowest ones, differring to a highly significant degree from the others, were found in families of Wołoszka and Cherifa DB. The lowest dispersion of the level of that trait was observed for the family of Ukrainka, whereas the greatest variability in the family of Milordka (Table 2).

Table 2. Comparison of average point scores for the trait “head and neck” in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average point scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

18.20AaB

0.86

4.74

19

16

2.

Milordka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

215

18.20bCD

0.90

4.95

20

16

3.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

18.19cEF

0.80

4.38

20

17

4.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

18.13dG

0.72

3.95

20

16

5.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

18.09H

0.79

4.37

20

16

6.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

18.04I

0.68

3.78

20

16

7.

Mlecha db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

18.00J

0.73

4.05

20

16

8.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

17.98K

0.63

3.53

20

16

9.

Szweykowska born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

17.95L

0.85

4.73

20

15

10.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

17.92

0.81

4.52

20

16

11.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

17.90abcM

0.66

3.67

20

16

12.

Wołoszka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

65

17.83ACdE

0.72

4.05

20

15

13.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

17.49BDFGHIJKLŁM

0.77

4.41

20

16

n – number of starts in shows,
Significant differences – small letters,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

For the trait “body and topline”, in general, observed was a tendency for lower point scores. The highest marks obtained were by the family of Scherife DB, which, to a highly significant or significant degree, prevailed over the remaining families (Table 3). The lowest level of that trait was obtained by the family of Cherifa DB and the differences between that family and remaining ones were significant or highly significant. The greatest equalization observed was in the family of Rodania DB, whereas the greatest variability – in the family of Semrie DB.

In the ranking of point scores for the trait “legs”, the families of Selma DB and Rodania DB were ex aequo placed first. Among marks for that trait no greater deviations were noted, so a highly significant difference was found only between the above mentioned families and the family of Gazella DB, which displayed the lowest value of its average point score (Table 4).

Table 3. Comparison of average point scores for the trait “body and topline” in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average point scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

17.76AaBbCcDdEFG

0.55

3.08

19

16

2.

Milordka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

215

17.64efH

0.59

3.37

20

16

3.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

17.55ag

0.65

3.69

19

16

4.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

17.55bh

0.58

3.29

19

16

5.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

17.55ci

0.63

3.57

19

16

6.

Szweykowska born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

17.53d

0.64

3.68

20

15

7.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

17.49A

0.42

2.39

19

16

8.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

17.48B

0.52

2.98

19

16

9.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

17.46C

0.56

3.18

20

16

10.

Mlecha db,. imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

17.44D

0.58

3.34

19

16

11.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

17.42Ee

0.60

3.44

19

16

12.

Wołoszka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

65

17.42Ff

0.55

3.16

19

16

13.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

17.30GgHhi

0.64

3.70

19

16

n – number of starts in shows,
Significant differences – small letters,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

Table 4. Comparison of average point scores for the trait “legs” in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average point scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

16.16Aabc

0.49

3.06

17

15

2.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

16.16Bdef

0.46

2.82

17

15

3.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

16.14ghi

0.50

3.10

17

15

4.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

16.12j

0.46

2.87

18

15

5.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

16.09

0.61

3.82

18

14

6.

Milordka born ca 1810 at Sławuta

215

16.09

0.55

3.44

18

14

7.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

16.08

0.52

3.23

19

13

8.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

16.07

0.44

2.72

18

14

9.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

16.07

0.50

3.09

18

14

10.

Wołoszka, born ca 1810 at Sławuta

65

16.05ad

0.59

3.65

18

14

11.

Szweykowska born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

16.04beg

0.49

3.08

18

13

12.

Mlecha db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

16.04cfh

0.58

3.64

19

14

13.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

16.02ABij

0.51

3.16

18

14

n – number of starts in shows,
Significant differences – small letters,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

A similar tendency was observed for the trait “movement”, for which the judges’ marks didn’t differ a lot between separate families. Only horses from the family of Cherifa DB were assessed to a highly significant degree lower than remaining families (Table 5). The greatest equalization of the level of that trait was noted for the family of Mlecha DB, whereas the greatest dispersion – for the family of Szweykowska.

The total point scores for all traits were similar in all tested families, so no significant differences between them were found. The relatively lowest total score was achieved by the family of Cherifa DB and only its average value was significantly lower than others (Table 6). The most equalized results were obtained by the representatives of Ukrainka family, whereas the greatest dispersion was observed in the family of Szweykowska.

Table 5. Comparison of average point scores for the trait “movement” in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average point scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

18.25A

0.84

4.59

20

16

2.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

18.25B

0.83

4.55

20

16

3.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

18.23C

0.81

4.44

20

15

4.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

18.22D

1.07

5.88

20

16

5.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

18.21E

0.89

4.90

20

16

6.

Szweykowska, born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

18.16F

1.11

6.13

20

16

7.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

18.10G

0.79

4.34

20

16

8.

Milordka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

215

18.09H

0.89

4.90

20

15

9.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

18.09I

0.87

4.78

20

15

10.

Wołoszka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

65

18.09J

0.89

4.94

20

15

11.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

18.07K

0.85

4.71

20

16

12.

Mlecha db,. imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

18.05L

0.73

4.06

20

16

13.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

17.52ABCDEFGHIJKL

0.93

5.33

19

14

n – number of starts in shows,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

Table 6. Comparison of average scores for all traits in damlines

No.

Damline

n

Average
scores

Standard deviation
SD

Coefficient of variability
V%

Mn

Mx

1.

Scherife db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

46

88.49A

2.72

3.07

92.33

82.33

2.

Rodania db, imp. 1881 to England

27

88.44B

2.91

3.29

95.33

84.33

3.

Semrie db, imp. 1902 to Babolna

23

88.43C

3.39

3.84

93.00

82.33

4.

Milordka born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

215

88.40D

3.24

3.67

94.67

79.67

5.

Szamrajówka born ca. 1810 at Biała Cerkiew

136

88.19E

2.85

3.23

96.33

81.33

6.

Selma born in 1865, Egypt

38

88.03F

2.75

3.13

92.00

81.00

7.

Gazella db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

240

87.93G

2.70

3.07

94.33

81.00

8.

Sahara db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

67

87.92H

2.93

3.34

94.33

82.00

9.

Szweykowska born ca. 1800 at Sławuta

68

87.90I

3.44

3.91

93.33

77.33

10.

Ukrainka born ca. 1815 at Sławuta

42

87.75J

2.59

2.96

94.00

83.00

11.

Mlecha db, imp. 1845 to Jarczowce

118

87.74K

2.89

3.29

93.33

80.67

12.

Wołoszka, born ca. 1810 at Sławuta

65

87.41a

2.91

3.33

94.33

78.67

13.

Cherifa db, imp. 1870 to France

21

86.30AaBCDEFGHIJK

3.11

3.61

93.00

81.00

n – number of starts in shows,
Significant differences – small letters,
Highly significant diffrerences – capital letters.

In the analysed population found were certain tendencies, as far as belonging to specified damlines is concerned. The highest average point scores for the trait “type” were obtained by the family of Rodania DB; for the trait “head and neck” – by the family of Semrie DB; for “body and topline”, as well as for all judged traits – by the family of Scherife DB, for “legs” and “movement” – by the family of Selma DB. Interesting, that in terms of all judged traits, except legs, the worst results were achieved by the representatives of the same family – Che-rifa DB. It might indicate, that horses belonging to the family of Cherifa DB had rather poor showy predispositions.

In general, the greatest differences were found between the average levels of point scores for “type” and “head and neck”, whereas the judge marks for “body and topline” and “legs” were mostly equalized. Similarily close to each other were total point scores. Only certain families showed significant or highly significant advantage over the other ones with regard to specified traits.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. In the tested period horses from the family of Scherife DB got the best results in terms of all judged traits.

  2. The horses taking part in major shows were mostly equalized with regards to the traits taken under estimation.


REFERENCES

  1. Budzynski M., Chmiel K., 1991. Linie zenskie i meskie polskich koni czystej krwi arabskiej wyrozniajace sie dzielnoscia wyscigowa [Damlines and Sirelines of Polish Purebred Arabian Horses Distinguishing Themselves by Racing Abilities]. Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sect. EE, IX,11, 73-80 [in Polish].

  2. Budzynski M., Chmiel K., 1999. Zasluzone klacze w polskiej hodowli koni czystej krwi arabskiej [Meritorious mares in Polish purebred Arabian horse breeding]. Wyd. AR Lublin 1999 [in Polish].

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  5. Katalogi i karty sędziowania Polskich Narodowych Pokazow Koni Arabskich Czystej Krwi i Wiosennych Młodzieżowych Pokazow Koni Czystej Krwi Arabskiej z lat 2001-2005 oraz Czempionatu Koni Arabskich w Falborku z lat 2004-2005 [Catalogues and juding chart of Polish National, and Youth Arabian Horse Show in the years 2001-2005, as well as of Falborek Championships 2004 and 2005] [in Polish].

  6. Nowicki B., Kossowska B., 1995. Genetyka i podstawy hodowli zwierzat. [Genetics and basic principles of animal breeding]. PWRiL, Warszawa [in Polish].

  7. Pawelec-Zawadzka I., Budzynski M., Chmiel K., 2001. Program Hodowli Koni Rasy Czystej Krwi Arabskiej. Opracowany przez zespol ds. Hodowli Polskiego Zwiazku Hodowcow Koni Arabskich (maszynopis na zlecenie Ministerstwa Rolnictwa) [The Program of Breeding of Purebreed Arabian Horses, worked out by the team of Polish Arabian Horse Breeder’s Association, by order of the Ministry of Agriculture]. Warszawa [in Polish].

  8. Rozwadowski Z., 1972. 50 years of breeding pure blood Arabian Horses in Poland in Their Genealogical Charts 1918-1968. PWRiL, Warszawa.

  9. Ruszczyc Z., 1978. Metodyka doswiadczen zootechnicznych [Methodology of animal science experiments]. PWRiL, Warszawa [in Polish].

  10. Sobczuk D., 2001. Stabilnosc cyklu płciowego u klaczy czystej krwi arabskiej w powiazaniu z ich wartoscia uzytkowa. I. Genetyczne uwarunkowania cech długosci rui i ciazy [Stability of the Reproductive Cycle in Purebred Arabian Mares Connected with Their Performance Value. I. Genetic Conditions of Heat and Pregnancy Lengths]. Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sect. EE, XIX, 27, 215-223 [in Polish].

 

Accepted for print: 13.04.2007



Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.


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