Nie udalo sie poł±czyć z baz±! EJPAU .
Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.

Volume 10
Issue 1
Topic:
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
. , EJPAU 10(1), #33.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume10/issue1/art-33.html


 

ABSTRACT

Three apple orchards differed between each other with the cultivation system and the type of agrotechnical treatments situated near Lublin were chosen for the studies, which were conducted in three vegetation periods in the years 1999-2001. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the number of leaf tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) occurring in apple orchards. Totally, 2593 caterpillars and 64 pupae of leaf tortricids were collected during the studies. Both the larvae and the pupae occurred in the greatest numbers in the orchard without any chemical protection. The occurrence of 13 species of leaf tortricids belonging to two sub-families: Tortricinae (11 species) and Olethreutinae (2 species), was observed as a result of the studies. The occurrence of all 13 species was observed in the orchard without any protective treatments. 6 species of leaf tortricids were found in the orchard with a limited program of protection, whereas in the intensively protected orchard – only 3 species. Archips rosana (L.), constituting 41.0% of all marked individuals, was the most numerous species. During the three years of studies the greatest number of leaf tortricid caterpillars in all the apple orchards was found on Idared cv.

Key words: .

INTRODUCTION

The species composition of leaf tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the orchards of Western Europe and in Poland is similar; however, the structure of their domination is differentiated. About 17-22 species can occur commonly and constitute a threat in orchard cultivations of Poland, but during observations 8 to 10 specimens of these phytophagous species are found [12, 13]. These differences result from the fact that in different regions of the country particular species occur with varying intensity. Besides, in the same areas their species composition changes in particular years [6, 12]. The species composition and the population of leaf tortricids are also affected by the natural conditions (region specificity, meteorological conditions) as well as the manner of running the cultivation and the frequency of applying the plant protecting treatments [16].

The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the number of leaf tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) occurring in apple orchards of the vicinity of Lublin.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Observations were conducted in three vegetation periods in the years 1999-2001. Three apple orchards situated near Lublin were chosen for the studies. Site 1 is an orchard without any chemical control situated at Leonów, where no protective treatments or fertilization have been applied for a few years. Site 2 is an orchard with a limited control program in Motycz, where the chemical plants protection was used when the population of the pest exceeded the threshold of danger. Site 3 is an intensively protected orchard in Jastków.

15 trees from each of three apple tree cultivars from different parts of the orchard were randomly chosen in each of the examined orchards. The apple cultivars included in the study were Idared and Cortland, which were found in all the three apple orchards, Golden Delicious, occurring in the orchard without any chemical protection, Melrose in the orchard with a limited program of protection, and Lobo in the intensively protected orchard.

The observations were carried out between the phase of leaf bud breaking and the falling of leaves, with 7-days’ intervals. Five branches were randomly selected on each tree and the flower-leaf rosettes and then the leaf rosettes were observed there, picking up the caterpillars and the pupae of leaf tortricids. Each larva and pupa was separately kept in flasks. The caterpillars were provided with an artificial diet. They were inspected every day. The raising was maintained until a moths imago was obtained. A part of the cultivated moths were skeletonized on setting boards and the other specimens together with the exuviae were kept in labeled flasks. They were marked on the basis of the view of wings and structure of copulation apparatus. In this order the studies of Razowski [22, 23, 24, 25] were used.

RESULTS

Totally, 2593 caterpillars and 64 pupae of leaf tortricids were collected during the studies carried out in the years 1999-2001 in three apple orchards in the vicinity of Lublin. Both the larvae and the pupae occurred in the greatest numbers in the orchard without any chemical protection at Leonów, where 2518 larvae and 62 pupae were collected. In the other two orchards, where the protective treatments were performed, the caterpillars and the pupae occurred only scarcely. 62 caterpillars and 2 pupae of leaf tortricids were collected in the orchard with a limited program of protection (in Motycz), while only 13 caterpillars were picked up in the intensively protected orchard (in Jastków).

A part of the collected caterpillars and pupae died out during the raring, which made the identification impossible. 1526 specimens of Tortricidae belonging to 13 species (tab. 1) were marked from the whole collected material in all the experimental objects. Their list is presented accepting the onomatology and the systematics according to Razowski in a paper by Buszko and Nowacki [2]. Archips rosana (L.) (Photo 1, 2), Archips xylosteana (L.) (Photo 3, 4), Archips podana (Scop.), Archips crataegana (Hbn.), Pandemis heparana (Den. et Schiff.) (Photo 5), Pandemis cerasana (Hbn.), Pandemis cinnamomeana (Treit.), Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Rösl.) (Photo 6), Acleris holmiana (L.), Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Müll.) and Ptycholoma lecheana (L.) included to the subfamily of Tortricinae, while Hedya nubiferana (Haw.) (Photo 7) and Spilonota ocellana (Den. et Schaff.) to the subfamily of Olethreutinae.

Photo 1. Larva of Archips rosana (L.)

Photo 2. Male of Archips rosana (L.)

Photo 3. Larva of Archips xylosteana (L.)

Photo 4. Imago of Archips xylosteana (L.)

Photo 5. Imago of Pandemis heparana (Den. et Schiff.)

Photo 6. Imago of Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Rösl.)

Photo 7. Imago of Hedya nubiferana (Haw.)

Table 1. The species composition and the number of leaf tortricids in particular apple orchards in the years 1999-2001

Names of species

An orchard without chemical control (Site 1)

An orchard with a limited control program (Site 2)

An orchard intensively protected (Site 3)

Totally in orchards

Number of individuals
[in specimens]

Percentage contribution in given site

Number of individuals
[in specimens]

Percentage contribution in given site

Number of individuals
(in specimens)

Percentage contribution in given site

1999

2000

2001

total

1999

2000

2001

total

1999

2000

2001

total

Individuals (in specimens)

%

Archips rosana (L.)

283

142

183

608

97.3

1

5

5

11

1.7

1

3

2

6

1.0

625

41.0

Pandemis heparana (Den. et Schiff.)

96

17

25

138

95.2

1

2

2

5

3.4

1

1

 

2

1.4

145

9.5

Adoxophyes orana (Fisch. v. Rösl.)

51

53

63

167

92.8

3

4

5

12

6.7

1

   

1

0.5

180

11.8

Spilonota ocellana (Den. et Schiff.)

12

41

230

283

100.0

                   

283

18.5

Hedya nubiferana (Haw.)

7

44

87

138

97.2

   

4

4

2.8

         

142

9.3

Pandemis cerasana (Hbn.)

4

3

20

27

96.4

 

1

 

1

3.6

         

28

1.8

Acleris holmiana (L.)

1

6

60

67

100.0

                   

67

4.4

Archips crataegana (Hbn.)

2

2

6

10

100.0

                   

10

0.7

Archips podana (Scop.)

1

   

1

100.0

                   

1

0.1

Pandemis cinnamomeana (Treit.)

1

1

2

4

100.0

                   

4

0.3

Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Müll.)

2

 

5

7

100.0

                   

7

0.4

Ptycholoma lecheana (L.)

1

1

3

5

100.0

                   

5

0.3

Archips xylosteana (L.)

 

16

11

27

93.1

   

2

2

6.9

         

29

1.9

Total

461

326

695

1482

-

5

12

18

35

-

3

4

2

9

-

1526

100.0

Percentage contribution of all species in given site

 

97.1

 

2.3

 

0.6

 

The occurrence of all 13 species was observed in the orchard without any protective treatments. 6 species of leaf tortricids were found in the orchard with a limited program of protection in Motycz, whereas in the intensively protected orchard in Jastków – only 3 species. It follows from the data presented in table 1 that Archips rosana, constituting 41.0% of all marked individuals, was the most numerous species. The second one, as far as the numbers are concerned, was Spilonota ocellana, whose number constituted 18.5% of all the specimens; however, this species was found only in the orchard without any chemical protection in Leonów. Adoxophyes orana, constituting 11.8% of all the reared moths, was characterized by a relatively high number. In the orchard without chemical protection in Leonów it was on the third place regarding its number, whereas in the orchard with a limited program of protection it was most numerous among all the observed species. Another fairly numerous species was Pandemis heparana, which in the orchard with no protective treatment was – together with Hedya nubiferana, – on the fourth place in respect of their number. In the orchard with a limited program of protection it was on the third place, while in the intensively protected orchard – on the second as far as the number is concerned. Hedya nubiferana caterpillars were also found in the orchard with a limited protective program; in respect of their number this species was on the fourth place among all the observed species of Tortricidae in that orchard. In the orchard without any chemical protection Acleris holmiana was also numerous, but its greatest number, constituting about 90% of all the reared moths of this species, was found in the last year of studies. This species was not observed in the other two experimental objects. Pandemis cerasana and Archips xylosteana occurred on the same level in the orchard without any chemical protection (27 individuals), with the former one appearing in the greatest numbers in the last year of the studies. Archips xylosteaea was the most numerous in 2000, while in 1999 the studies did not find any occurrence of the species. In the orchard with a limited program of protection the occurrence of Archips xylosteana and Pandemis cerasana was observed only in one year of the studies and those species were represented exclusively by singular specimens. The other marked species – Archips crataegana, Archips podana, Pandemis cinnamomeana, Choristoneura hebenstreitella and Ptycholoma lecheana reared from the collected material appeared only in the orchard without any protective treatments, and their number was shaped at a low level (below 1.0% of all the identified individuals).

It follows from the data in table 2 that in the orchard without any treatments of plant protection (in Leonów) the greatest number of tortricid caterpillars were found on Idared cv, which constituted 39.8% of the total population of larvae collected in this experimental object during the three years of studies. A much smaller number of both larvae and pupae were found on Golden Delicious cv. On the other hand, Cortland cv. was colonized by those insects in the smallest degree. Results of the observations performed in the period of three vegetation seasons are the basis for the statement that in the initial period of vegetation the most tortricid caterpillars developed just on Idared cv. The number of these pests on the other two cultivars was much smaller at the beginning of vegetation. On the other hand, during the summer peak the number of tortricid caterpillars was the biggest (in particular study years) on Golden Delicious cv.

Table 2. The number of leaf tortricids larvae and pupae collected on particular apple cultivars in the years 1999-2001

Site

Larvae (in specimens)

Pupae (in specimens)

An orchard without chemical control
(Site 1)

An orchard with a limited control
(Site 2)

An orchard intensively protected
(Site 3)

An orchard without chemical control
(Site 1)

An orchard with a limited control
(Site 2)

An orchard intensively protected
(Site 3)

Cultivar

Years of study

Idared

Cortland

Golden Delicious

Idared

Cortland

Melrose

Idared

Cortland

Lobo

Idared

Cortland

Golden Delicious

Idared

Cortland

Melrose

Idared

Cortland

Lobo

1999

424

272

265

5

4

0

3

1

0

8

8

8

0

1

0

0

0

0

2000

269

160

244

11

5

7

4

1

1

5

5

6

1

0

0

0

0

0

2001

310

215

259

11

13

6

2

1

0

9

4

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

1003

647

686

27

22

13

9

3

1

22

17

23

1

1

0

0

0

0

% contribution on given cultivar in orchard

39.8

25.7

34.5

43.5

35.5

21.0

69.2

23.1

7.7

35.5

27.4

37.1

50.0

50.0

0

-

-

-

The highest number of tortricid caterpillars in the orchard with a limited program of protection (in Motycz) in the years 1999-2001 was observed on Idared cv. Cortland apple trees were injured to a lesser extent (22 individuals), while the lowest number of tortricids was found on Melrose cv. (13 individuals) Those relationships also changed in particular years of the studies. In 2000 more caterpillars were found on Melrose cv. as compared with Cortland cv., while in 2001 the greatest number of larvae was observed on the apple trees of Cortland cv.

In the intensively protected orchard (in Jastków), just like in the other two experimental orchards, the greatest number of caterpillars was observed on Idared cv. In the same time only single specimens of these pests were observed on Cortland and Lobo cvs.

DISCUSSION

The natural and climatic conditions in a given region both influence the species composition of the population of leaf tortricids in orchards. They determine the domination of a given species [17, 21]. The studies found out the occurrence of 13 species of leaf tortricids belonging to sub-family Tortricinae and Olethreutinae in the orchards included in the experiment in Lublin region. The habitat type of varying degrees of anthropopression is a factor forming the species composition and the population structure of the entomofauna, including the population of leaf tortricids [14]. This fact is confirmed by the results obtained in the authors’ own studies, which point out that the greatest number – 13 species – of leaf tortricids were found in the orchard without any man’s interference for a few years. In the orchard with a limited program of plant protection the studies found out a twice as low number of the species (6 species), while only 3 species were observed in the intensively protected and fertilized orchard. All the species found in the studied apple orchards had been earlier observed on fruit trees and shrubs in the area of Poland [1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 26, 27].

Archips rosana, whose proportion in the three years of studies was 41.0% of all the reared individuals, was the most numerous species of leaf tortricids in all the orchards. The domination of this species in the area of Lublin is confirmed by the results of studies conducted on hazel plantation by Gantner [3]. As far as other regions of the country are concerned, an equally big number of this species constituting a threat, was observed only in central Poland [15, 21]. The studies carried out by Jong [5] point out that in the area of Holland this is a locally appearing species and it does not pose any greater threat to orchard cultivations.

The data presented in the papers by Koslińska [6, 7, 8], Koslińska and Golikowa [9], Koslińska and Markowski [10] and also Krakowiak [11] point to the domination of Spilonota ocellana in apple orchards in different regions of Poland. The authors’ own studies showed that as far as the number is concerned, this species was on the second place but its presence was found out only in the orchard without any chemical protection. This confirms the fact that it appears mainly in neglected orchards [13].

In the course of three years of studies Adoxophyes orana, Pandemis heparana, Hedya nubiferana and Acleris holmiana also occurred in relatively big numbers. Their total proportion in the population of tortricids constituted 35.0%. Among those species, Pandemis heparana and Adoxophyes orana appear in fairly big numbers in different areas of Poland [18, 21]. In other European countries these are also dominating species. Pandemis heparana dominates in apple orchards of Switzerland [4], while Adoxophyes orana – in most regions of Holland [5] as well as in west Serbia [28].

The occurrence of Acleris holmiana was found out only in the orchard without any chemical protection, and its biggest number (about 90% individuals of this species) was observed only in the last year of studies. This species is enumerated as constituting a threat in Polish orchards only by Razowski and Wiąckowski [26].

In all the apple orchards (in the three years of studies) the biggest number of leaf totricid caterpillars was found on Idared cv. A smaller number of larvae was observed on Golden Delicious cv, while the cultivars of Cortland, Melrose and Lobo were clearly attacked in the smallest degree. Studies conducted by Płuciennik et al. [19, 20], on the other hand, show that Cortland cv. is characterized by the same or even higher susceptibility to injuries caused by tortricids as compared to Idared cv.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The occurrence of 13 species of leaf tortricids belonging to two sub-families: Tortricinae (11 species) and Olethreutinae (2 species), was observed as a result of the studies conducted in apple orchards.

  2. The greatest number of species – 13 – was found in the orchard without any treatments of plant protection, 6 species were found in the orchard with a limited program of protection, whereas only 3 species occurred in the intensively protected orchard.

  3. Archips rosana (L.), whose number in all the three years of studies constituted 41.0% of all the individuals, was the most numerous species of leaf tortricids in all the experimental orchards.

  4. During the three years of studies the greatest population of leaf tortricid caterpillars in all the apple orchards was found on Idared cv.


REFERENCES

  1. Anasiewicz A., 1963. Badania nad zwójka Archips rosana L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) występujaca na porzeczce czarnej (Ribes nigrum L.), czerwonej (Ribes rubrum L.) oraz agrescie (Ribes grossularia L.) w okolicach Lublina w latach 1956-1961 [Studies on the tortricid Archips rosana L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) occurring on black currant – (Ribes nigrum L.), red currant (Ribes rubrum L.) and gooseberry (R. grossularia L.) in area of Lublin in the years 1956-1961]. Annales UMCS, Sec. E, 18, 227-258 [in Polish].

  2. Buszko J., Nowacki J., 2000. The Lepidoptera of Poland. A Distributional Checklist. Polish Entomological Monographs, Vol. 1., PTE, Poznań-Toruń, pp. 178.

  3. Gantner M., 2001. Naturalna regulacja populacji zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) występujacych na leszczynie w okolicach Lublina [Natural regulation of tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) populations occurring on hazel in Lublin region]. Prog. Plant Prot. 41(2), 661-664 [in Polish].

  4. Jeanneret Ph., Charmillot P.J., 1997. Populations de tordeuses dans les vergers d’arbres à haute tige et risque de colonisation pour les cultures commerciales de pommieres. Rev. Suisse Vitic. Arboric. Hortic. 29(4), 219-227.

  5. Jong D.J. de, 1980. Biology and control of secondary insect pests in fruit crops. Integrated control of insect pests in the Netherlands, Pudoc, Wageningen, 29-31.

  6. Koslińska M., 1970. Fauna zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) na jabłoniach w niektórych okolicach Polski. Częsc I [Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some regions of Poland. Part I]. Pol. Pis. Entomol., T. XL/3, 557-564 [in Polish].

  7. Koslińska M., 1973. Fauna zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) na jabłoniach w niektórych okolicach Polski. Częsc II [Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some regions of Poland. Part II]. Pol. Pis. Entomol. 43, 331-346 [in Polish].

  8. Koslińska M., 1978. Fauna zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) na jabłoniach w niektórych okolicach Polski. Częsc III [Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some regions of Poland. Part III]. Pol. Pis. Entomol. 48, 105-113 [in Polish].

  9. Koslińska M., Golikowa E., 1978. Fauna zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) na jabłoniach w niektórych okolicach Polski. Częsc V [Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some regions of Poland. Part V]. Pol. Pis. Entomol. 48, 123-127 [in Polish].

  10. Koslińska M., Markowski K., 1978. Fauna zwójkówek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) na jabłoniach w niektórych okolicach Polski. Częsc IV [Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some regions of Poland. Part IV]. Pol. Pis. Entomol. 48, 115-121 [in Polish].

  11. Krakowiak A., 1974. Występowanie zwójek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) w sadach okolic Poznania [The occurrence of tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in orchards in Poznan region]. Pol. Pis. Entomol. 44, 835-838 [in Polish].

  12. Olszak R.W., 1995. Zagrożenia, problemy i tendencje w ochronie roslin sadowniczych przed szkodnikami [Threat, problems and tendency in orchard plants control against pests]. Ogólnopol. Konf. Ochr. Roslin Sad., Skierniewice 1-2 luty, 10-16 [in Polish].

  13. Olszak R.W., Płuciennik Z., 1997. Zwójkówki lisciowe [Leaf tortricids]. Instrukcja upowszechniania 237, ISiK Skierniewice, pp. 23 [in Polish].

  14. Pisarski B., Trojan P., 1976. Wpływ urbanizacji na entomofaunę [The influence of urbanization on entomofauna]. Entomologia a ochrona srodowiska. PWN, Warszawa, 65-76 [in Polish].

  15. Płuciennik Z., 2000. Zwójki lisciowe – zagrożenie i zwalczanie [Leaf tortricids – threat and control]. V Ogólnopol. Spotkanie Sadowników w Grójcu, 19-20 styczeń 2000 r., ISiK Skierniewice, 106-110 [in Polish].

  16. Płuciennik Z., Olszak R.W., 2005. Zwójkówki w sadach [Tortricids in apple orchards]. Plantpress Kraków, pp. 53 [in Polish].

  17. Płuciennik Z., Tworkowska U., Rejnus M., 1992. Odłowy zwójkówek na pułapki feromonowe, a uszkodzenia na pędach i owocach jabłoni [Tortricids caches into pheromon traps and damages on apple branches and fruits]. Pr. Inst. Sad., Ser. C., 1-2, 54-57 [in Polish].

  18. Płuciennik Z., Rejnus M., Banys M., Brożbar J., 1994. Zwójki lisciowe – występowanie i problemy zwalczania [Leaf tortricids – occurrence and problems in their control]. Mat. Ogólnopol. Konf. Ochr. Roslin Sad., ISiK Skierniewice, 51-55 [in Polish].

  19. Płuciennik Z., Olszak R.W., Tworkowska U., Rejnus M., Krawiec A., 1996. Wstępne wyniki badań nad ocena atrakcyjnosci niektórych odmian jabłoni dla zwójkówek lisciowych [Initial results of the study on estimation of attractiveness of some apple cultivars for leaf tortricids]. Ogólnopol. Konf. Ochr. Roslin Sad., Skierniewice 20-21 luty, 109-111 [in Polish].

  20. Płuciennik Z., Olszak R.W., Tworkowska U., Krawiec A., Rejnus M., 1998a. Ocena atrakcyjnosci niektórych odmian jabłoni dla zwójkówek lisciowych [Estimation of attractiveness of some apple cultivars for leaf tortricids]. Ogólnopol. Konf. Ochr. Roslin Sad., Skierniewice 19-20 luty, 109-111 [in Polish].

  21. Płuciennik Z., Olszak R.W., Tworkowska U., 1998b. Skład gatunkowy zwójkówek lisciowych w różnych rejonach klimatycznych Polski [Species composition of leaf tortricids in different climatic region of Poland]. Ogólnopol. Konf. Ochr. Roslin Sad., Skierniewice 19-20 luty, 91-94 [in Polish].

  22. Razowski J., 1969. Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski. Cz. XXVII, Motyle – Lepidoptera, z. 41b, Zwójkówki – Tortricidae [The key to the Polish insects identification Part XXVII, Lepidoptera, no 41b, Tortricidae], pp. 131 [in Polish].

  23. Razowski J., 1981. Motyle (Lepidoptera) Polski. Cz. V – Cossoidea i Tortricinae [Polish Lepidoptera. Part V – Cossoidea and Tortricinae]. Monografie Fauny Polski, T. 10. PWN, Warszawa–Kraków, pp. 345 [in Polish].

  24. Razowski J., 1983. Motyle (Lepidoptera) Polski. Cz. VI – Olethreutinae: Olethreutidii [Polish Lepidoptera. Part VI – Olethreutinae: Olethreutidii]. Monografie Fauny Polski, T. 13. PWN, Warszawa–Kraków, pp. 177 [in Polish].

  25. Razowski J., 1987. Motyle (Lepidoptera) Polski. Cz. VII – Uzupełnienia i Eucosmini [Polish Lepidoptera. Part VII – Supplement and Eucosmini]. Monografie Fauny Polski, T. 15. PWN, Warszawa–Kraków, pp. 254 [in Polish].

  26. Razowski J., Wiackowski S., 1959. Ważniejsze zwójki (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) występujace w sadach polskich [Important tortricids (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) occurring in Polish orchards]. Prace Inst. Sad., Ser. A, 4, 290-310 [in Polish].

  27. Riedl T., 1968. Materiały do znajomosci szkodliwych motyli (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) sadów [Materials to the knowledge on injurious moths (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in orchards]. Pol. Pism. Entomol. 38(2), 417-428 [in Polish].

  28. Stamenkovič S., Milenkovič S., Stamenkovič T., Polesny F., 1999. Population dynamics of summer fruit tortrix moth Adoxophyes orana F.v.R. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Western Serbia. Workshop on arthropod pest problems in pome fruit production at Einsiedeln, Switzerland, November 30 – December 3, 1997. Bulletin OILB – SROP, 1999, 22: 7, 9 ref., 177-181.

 

Accepted for print: 16.01.2007



Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.


Nie udalo sie poł±czyć z baz±!