Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2007
Volume 10
Issue 1
Topic:
Veterinary Medicine
ELECTRONIC
JOURNAL OF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES
Brudnicki W. , Macherzyńska A. , Nowicki W. 2007. VARIATION IN THE ARTERIES OF THE AORTIC ARCH IN EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (Lepus Europaeus), EJPAU 10(1), #03.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume10/issue1/art-03.html

VARIATION IN THE ARTERIES OF THE AORTIC ARCH IN EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (LEPUS EUROPAEUS)

Witold Brudnicki1, Anetta Macherzyńska2, Włodzimierz Nowicki1
1 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
2 Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The research involved thirty adult European brown hare individuals. Arteries were filled with latex introduced into the abdominal aorta. It was found that the following descend from the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery and left subclavian artery. 40% of the common carotic arteries in their initial section constituted a common trunk, and in 20% cases both these arteries were an independent branch of the brachiocephalic artery. In such cases the left common carotid artery separated from the brachiocephalic artery immediately over the descend from the aortic arch. The right common carotid artery descends slightly higher. In 40% of all the individuals researched there was found a common trunk for the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.

Key words: hare, aorttic arch, arterie.

INTRODUCTION

Of all the reports on European brown hare, only few cover the anatomy of this species. Some authors mentioned only the heart which is proportionally exceptionally big when compared wit the body, which, in their opinion, demonstrates a high strength and a good adaptation to fast run. Information on the encephalon base arteries in hare can be found in the paper by Willand et al. [13]. The available literature does not seem to report on the aorta and its branches. Research into the anatomy, descend pattern and the course as well as variation in the arteries of the aortic arch have, however, included other animal species. [1,4,6,7,8,9,10,11].

With that in mind, the authors of the present paper decided to take up research into this important part of the cardiovascular system in hare, namely the aortic arch and the arteries descending from it, and to compare the results obtained with the description of this vascular region in other animal species.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The research involved thirty European brown hare individuals of booth sexes. The arteries were filed with latex introduced into the abdominal aorta with the use of syringe with the airbag. The preparations were fixed in a 5% formalin solution, and then arteries descending from the aortic arch were prepared. The preparations were photographed and described.

RESULTS

The first branch descending from the aortic arch in hare is the brachiocephalic artery a. brachiocephalica which is a large vessel running aslant to the right and cephalic and abdominal from the trachea and then the left subclavian artery a. subclavia sinistra, supplying the blood to the adequate half of the neck, the front limb and partially – to the thoracic cage. The right subclavian artery descended from the brachiocephalic trunk as the first branch. Each of the subclavian arteries created an arc towards the front and then twisted around the front border of the first rib and ran posterior and inferior towards the lower section of the front limb, creating the main arterial pathway. The brachiocephalic artery gave rise to, respectively, the right and left common carotid arteries a. carotis communis sinistra, dextra. Slightly above the descend of carotid arteries, at the same level the right vertebral artery a. vertebralis dextra and the right deep thoracic artery a. thoracica profunda dextra descend, followed by the descend of costocervical trunk, and then the superficial cervical artery a. cervicalis superficialis. [Phot.1].

Phot.1. Arteries of the aortic arch in hare. A – aorta, 1 – brachiocephalic artery, 2 – left subclavian artery, 2’ – right subclavian artery, 3 – left common carotid artery, 3’ – right common carotid artery, 4 – left internal thoracic artery, 4’ – right internal thoracic artery, 5 – left vertebral artery, 5’ – right vertebral artery, 6 – left costocervical trunk, 7 – left superficial cervical artery 8 – left axillary artery, 8’ – right axillary artery, 9 – dorsal intercostal arteries

The left subclavian artery a. subclavia sinistra constitutes the second branch of the aortic arch. In European brown hare the first branch of the left subclavian artery were usually symmetrical intercostals arteries a. intercostalis, then the left vertebral artery a. vertebralis sinistra and the left deep thoracic artery a. thoracica profunda sinistra. The vertebral artery separates from the upper surface of the subclavian artery, and then runs towards the transverse foramen of the fourth vertebra and positions itself lateral to the trachea. The brachiocephalic trunk separates from the subclavian artery above the vertebral artery and goes towards the first intercostal space where it divides further. The left superficial cervical artery is another vessel which descends from the left subclavian artery, runs to the acromiocervical region where it is divided into small vessels. The left deep thoracic artery descends from the abdominal surface of the subclavian artery at the same height as the vertebral artery and runs caudally between transverse thoracic muscles and the sternum.

There was observed a variation in the descend pattern of common carotid arteries in hare. In 40% of the cases these arteries in their initial course constituted a common trunk, and in 20% of the cases both the arteries created an independent branch of the brachiocephalic artery. In such cases the left common carotid artery separated from the brachiocephalic artery immediately over the descend from the aortic arch. The right common carotid artery descends slightly higher. In 40% of the individuals there was observed a trunk common for the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. The variation recorded has already been described in American mink, however there it accounted for an inconsiderable percentage (7.2%). The occurrence of the trunk common for carotid arteries is not unique and it is found in different animal species, e.g. polar fox, silver fox. In 60% of the cases vertebral arteries together with the right thoracic artery descended in a form of a common trunk. [Phot. 2].

Phot.2. Arteries of the aortic arch in hare. A – aorta, 1 – brachiocephalic artery, 2 – left subclavian artery, 2’ – right subclavian artery, 3 – left common carotid artery, 3’ – right common carotid artery, 4 – left internal thoracic artery, 4’ – right internal thoracic artery, 5 – left vertebral artery, 5’ – right vertebral artery, 6 – left costocervical trunk, 7 – left superficial cervical artery 8 – left axillary artery, 8’ – right axillary artery, 9 – dorsal intercostal arteries, P – common trunk for common carotid arteries

The left internal thoracic artery separates from the left subclavian artery at a different height than the aortic arch. It does not have a common trunk, just like on the right side, with the intercostal artery and the vertebral artery. In 80% of the cases it separates at the level of the intercostal artery and in the other cases – immediately over it. The left intercostal artery in 30% of the cases descended with a common trunk to divide further into two independent vessels. In the other individuals there were found two intercostal arteries separating from the left subclavian artery not far from each other. In all the cases the left intercostal arteries always constituted the first branch of the left subclavian artery. The right internal thoracic artery comes from the right subclavian artery, in 60% of the cases a common trunk is observed for the thoracic artery and two intercostal arteries; in the other cases this artery is an independent branch of the right subclavian artery at the level of the right vertebral artery or between the vertebral artery and the intercostal artery.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In European brown hare in all the cases studied two arteries descended from the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery and the left subclavian artery. Such a pattern is also recorded in all the predator species, which coincides with some reports [5,8,12]. In most individuals of the species researched carotid arteries descended from the brachiocephalic artery with a common trunk, bifurcating then into the right and left ones. The common trunk for the above arteries separated at the height of the right subclavian artery in most of the cases. The occurrence of the trunk common for common carotid arteries is also found in guinea pig, which was demonstrated by Jabłoński [3]. Such a pattern is also typical for pig [7,10]. Knasiecka [5] described a common trunk in polar fox in 8% of the cases, in red fox in 15% of all the cases, in platinum fox in 25% of all the cases. Nowicki et al. [8] described such a trunk in 20.27% of red foxes and 12.33 of silver foxes, and Wiland [12] in 6.6% of American mink. A low percentage is also observed in raccoon dog 1.7% [2]. The tripartite division of the brachiocephalic artery into the left common carotid artery, the right common carotid artery and the subclavian artery in European brown hare occurred in 20% of all the cases studied. Berg and Smollich [1] described such a pattern of descend of the arteries as tripus brachiocephalicus, found in dog in 1.8% of all the cases studied, cat in 13.6%, in pig embryos in 6.2% of all the cases studied. In American mink Wiland [12] observed it in 2.1% of all the cases, whereas Jabłoński [3] in guinea pig in 57.65%. In the common fox population there was recorded the same division of the brachiocephalic artery in 12.16% of red foxes and 30.14% of silver foxes. In the hares researched in 40% of the individuals there was found a trunk common for the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.

REFERENCES

  1. Berg R., Smolich A., 1962. Systematische Untersuchungen über die Aufzweigung der a. subclavia bei /Canis Familiaris/ [Research of the subclavian arteries in Canis Familiaris] Anat. Anz. 110:410-416 [in German].

  2. Jabłoński R., Brudnicki W., Wiland C., 1987. Główne tętnice łuku aorty i sposób odejscia ich gałęzi u jenota /Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray/ [Main arteries of the aortic arch and the pattern of descend of their branches in raccoon dog /Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray/]. Zesz. Naukowe ATR w Bydgoszczy. 150 /Zoot. 15/, 27 [in Polish].

  3. Jabłoński R., 1980. Obserwacje nad tętnicami podstawy mózgowia i łuku aorty oraz ich odmianami u swinki morskiej /Cavia porcellus L./ [Observations of the encephalon base arteries and the aortic arch and their variations in guinea pig. /Cavia porcellus L./]. Zesz. nauk ATR, Bydgoszcz pp. Zoot. 5: 5-24 [in Polish].

  4. Knasiecka V., 1970. Łuk aorty u lisa polarnego [Aortic arch in polar fox]. Rocz. WSR in Poznań 49: 53-57 [in Polish].

  5. Knasiecka V., 1974. Główne tętnice łuku aorty I sposób odejscia ich gałęzi ugatunku Vulpes vulpes L. [Main arteries of the aortic arch and the pattern of descend of their branches in Vulpes vulpes L. species]. PhD dissertation WSR Poznań [in Polish].

  6. Kubica I., Indykiewicz P., Nowicki W., Wiland C., 2005. Wpływ długosci ciała na zmiennosc odgałęzień łuku aorty u psa /Canis lupus f.domestica/ [Effect of the body weight on the variation in the aortic arch branches in dog /Canis lupus f.domestica/]. Pr. Komis. Nauk Rol. I Biol. BTN, 2005, Series B, No 56: 127-132 [in Polish].

  7. Macherzyńska A, Jabłoński R., 2004. Arteries of the aortic arch in domestic pig. Annual of Animal Sciences Sup.2 pp. 229-234.

  8. Nowicki W., Jabłoński R., Skoczylas B., Brudnicki W., 2003. Problemy Gigeny selskochozjajstwennych żiwotnych [Variations of the aorta arch in common fox]. Akademia Weterynarnoj Medyciny Witebsk, 168-170 [in Russian].

  9. Nowicki W., 2005. Comparison of Biometric Characters of Aorta Branches in Farm and Wild Fox (Vulpes vulpes L.). Folia biologica (Kraków), vol. 53, Supplement.

  10. Smollich A., Berg R., 1960. Systematische Untersuchungen über Ursprung und Aufzweigung der Äste des Aortenbogens beim Hausschwein /Sus scrofa domesticus/ [Research of the aortic arch and the pattern of descend of their branches in domestic pig]. Monatschefte für Veterinarmedizin [in German].

  11. Wiland C., 1974. Czynniki wpływające na zmiennosc tętnic podstawy mózgowia u ssaków [Factors affecting the variation of the encephalon base arteries in mammals]. Przegląd Zool. 17 [in Polish].

  12. Wiland C., 1974. Zmiennosc tętnic podstawy mózgowia i łuku aorty u norki amerykńskiej [Variation in the encephalon base arteries and the aortic arch in American mink]. Bydg. Tow. Nauk Przyr. W-wa, Poznań 14 [in Polish].

  13. Wiland C., Brudnicki W., Jabłoński R., 1987. Tętnice podstawy mózgowia zająca europejskiego [Encephalon base arteries in European hare]. ATR Zesz. Nauk, 150 Zoot, 15 [in Polish].

 

Accepted for print: 4.01.2007


Witold Brudnicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: anat@utp.edu.pl

Anetta Macherzyńska
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting,
Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardynska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
Phone/Fax: 052 3749510

Włodzimierz Nowicki
Department of Animal Morphology and Hunting, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, UTP University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Bernardyńska 6
85-029 Bydgoszcz
Poland
email: wlodek_novika@interia.eu

Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed 'Discussions' and hyperlinked to the article.