EJPAU, 2017, Volume 20, Issue 1

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20(1) #01
18 Jan 2017
Environmental Development
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For many decades, the countryside of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) has been composed not only of peasant farmsteads and charming little churches, but also impressive mansions with economic facilities. Residential buildings of former farm employees make a part of such manor and farm complexes and are characteristic features distinguishing the villages in Greater Poland. It is due to their specific location in the rural landscape and architecture that is simple, but unique in its expression.

Residential buildings along with small economic facilities assigned to them, arranged parallel to the road or grouped around separate courtyards, have formed and continue to create one-of-a-kind residential colonies. The post-war period and, above all, the subsequent ownership changes have contributed to degradation of those complexes. In the recent times, all kinds of renewal and renovation works turned out dangerous for those buildings because they show conservation ignorance and more or less conscious ignoring of the conservation rules by the renovation crews. For this reason, it is important to raise awareness among the residents of such establishments and show them that it is possible to adapt the historical residential complexes to modern needs and expectations of users whilst respecting the historical value.

In this article, we use an example of a complex in Chwałkowo, situated in the Gostyń District in Greater Poland Province, to show that a neglected common space may be made attractive to all inhabitants.

20(1) #02
19 Jan 2017
Wood Technology
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In this research, thermal modification of black pine (Pinus nigra L.) wood was conducted at 180 and 200°C, for 3–7 hours and some essential mechanical properties, such as modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), impact bending strength, compression strength, hardness in tangential and radial direction and surface roughness, were examined. It was observed that, as the intensity of treatment increases, the equilibrium moisture content and density of modified wood tend to decrease. The treatments of 180°C resulted in an improvement of bending strength, while treatments of 200°C caused a decrease. MOE of treated specimens increased regardless the duration or temperature. The treatments of 180°C increased the hardness, while at 200°C this improvement was limited to smaller increase and a reduction in subsequent treatments. Treatments of 180°C appeared to improve the impact bending strength, compared to control, while the treatments of 200°C demonstrated a strength decrease. Additionally, all the treatments improved the compression strength of pine, and referring to surface roughness, only the milder treatment managed to decrease it.

20(1) #03
24 Jan 2017
Environmental Development
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According to existing scientific assessments, water erosion is one of the main processes responsible for the degradation of the natural environment in the Polish Sudety Mountains. The anthropogenic activity in forested areas, as well as forestry management, requires a dense network of internal roads, which limits the protective functions of the forest in terms of preventing soil erosion. An important factor contributing to the intensification of water erosion in forested areas is the improper location of roads in relation to land relief. While designing the routing of forest roads, their influence on the intensity and spatial extent of water-erosion is often omitted.
    On the basis of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and spatial data for the Polish part of the Western Sudety, an effort was made to evaluate the existing forest road networks with respect to their placement in land relief. The location of roads was evaluated using an analysis that measures road orientation with regard to the direction of slope gradient. This was expressed using the indicator IARRR (Indicator of Arrangement of Rural Road in Relief). This method unequivocally characterises the location of roads with regard to land relief. It simultaneously serves as the basis for erosion risk evaluation alongside roads, as well as one of the risk evaluation factors for linear water erosion in a catchment. The results indicate a large share of along-slope roads (ca 10.0%) which tend to get easily deepened by the traffic, and a vast majority of road sections running diagonal to the slope (ca 76.0%) tend to collect and intensify superficial runoff, thereby increasing linear erosion.

20(1) #04
28 Feb 2017
Food Science and Technology
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The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the production technology of soft white unripened cheeses from sheep milk on amino acid compositionof protein. Cheeses from the milk of Coloured Polish Merino sheep were made using four methods: (I) “traditional” rennet method – control; (II) calcium-rennet method; (III) acid-rennet method; (IV) acid-rennet method combined with heat treatment of the curd. The method of manufacturing influenced the content of solids, minerals, solids not fat, essential and non-essential amino acids, protein composition, and energy value of the product. Cheese I contained more solids, ash and solids not fat and had a higher energy value. Cheese III had the lowest mineral content. The highest content of essential and non-essential amino acids was obtained per kg of the cheese made by method II. In 100 g of protein from cheeses made by methods II and III there was more glycine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, lysine, methionine and cysteine, and less arginine compared to methods I and IV. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid for WE and MH protein standards. EAA content of cheese protein was 41.66 (I), 45.26 (II), 44.41 (III) and 42.67 g/100 g (IV).

20(1) #05
28 Mar 2017
Agricultural Engineering
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In order to estimate the moisture content variations of paddy in a deep bed dryer, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) simulation model was developed from a validated partial differential equation (PDE) model. Different ANN structures were developed and evaluated to obtain the best simulation model. Subsequently, the best network was selected based on the highest value of coefficient of determination (R2=0.9979), and the lowest value for the mean squared error (MSE=0.0732).The mean relative deviation between PDE data and the verified network outputs was obtained to be close to zero (MRD=0.51%). The performance of the proposed ANN was also evaluated by a set of experimental data. Good agreement was found between experimental and network predicted values (MRD=8.29%). Results indicated that the developed ANN is capable of predicting drying process with reasonable accuracy.

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