EJPAU, 2015, Volume 18, Issue 2

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18(2) #05
20 Apr 2015
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The aim of study conducted in 2010–2012 was to evaluate the influence of some natural preparations on the protein and dry matter content in the sweet pepper fruits. Fruits of sweet pepper (cv. Roberta F1) were the object of research. The natural preparations from garlic extract (Bioczos Plynny), grapefruit extract (Biosept 33 SL), sea algae (Bio-algeen S90 Plus) and blastospores of Aureobasidium pullulans ( Boni Protect Forte) were used for protection of pepper plants. Determination of protein and dry matter in pepper fruits was made during the middle of the harvest period.
    The presented results indicated small differences in protein  and dry matter content between the fruits from control combinations and those protected with natural preparations. It belongs to ascertain, that none of the applied natural preparations had a significant effect on the content of protein and dry matter in pepper fruits. Therefore, it should be stated that the application of tested preparations cannot decrease the quality of produced pepper and that the application of natural products does not result in the reduce the nutritional value of pepper, regarding proteins and dry matter, therefore they can be used in the practice.

18(2) #07
29 May 2015
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The evolution of the direct payments system in the EU, as a basic support to agriculture, is presented; beginning with the first forms of payments introduced by the British before United Kingdom joined the European Community. The standard system brought in by the McSharry Reform is discussed, which was altered by the Fischler Reform, that introduced i.a. the so called “decoupling”. The SAPS System, adopted as an alternative by the new member countries is analysed briefly. The paper is finalized by presentation of the principles of the direct payments system for 2014–2020. One of the new elements in this system is that farmers are obliged, to a much greater extent than before, to comply with pro-ecological requirements, so – called “greening”.

18(2) #04
20 Apr 2015
Animal Husbandry
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the hatching results of selected Polish conservation chicken breeds: Rhode Island Red (RIR), Sussex (Sx), Greenleg Partridge (GP) and Polbar (Pb) during four consecutive hatching seasons. A total of 41 487 of eggs were collected from 34-week-old hens. Standard incubation conditions were maintained. The fertility, hatchability, periodical embryonic mortality and number of crippled chicks were also calculated.
     The highest ratio of fertile eggs was observed in Pb (≈89%), followed by RIR (≈85%) and Sx (≈81%), while the smallest ratio was noted for GP. The percentage of chicks hatched out of the total number of the set eggs was highest in Pb (almost 90%). In all groups the fewest embryos died up to the 6th day of incubation, and the most in the hatching period (days 18–21). This proportion was considerably higher in RIR. The most embryos died in Sx eggs, while the GP eggs had the highest livability, followed by Pb and RIR. Despite a relatively high hatchability of eggs (fertile and set), the eggs from RIR hens were characterized by the highest number of crippled chicks (5.66%), compared to GP (1.31%), Sx (1.88%) or Pb (1.99%). The hatchability characteristics of hen breeds kept in Poland as conservation flocks differed significantly between breeds. However, apart from a few isolated cases, they were not influenced by the hatching season. This indicates the stability of reproductive traits, as well as a genetic potential of these birds, and allows Polish genetic resources being considered as an important pool of genes contributing to the global biodiversity.

18(2) #03
17 Apr 2015
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The current trial was conducted to study the effect of season on the potential nutritive value, methane production and condensed tannin of Calobota saharae shrub harvested at three different seasons, in winter (mid-January), spring (mid-May) and summer (end of July). Leaves, thin twigs, some flower and seeds (when existing) were clipped with scissors from the aerial part of the plants then dried and analysed for chemical composition. Gas and methane production were determined at 24 h incubation time. Season of harvest had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical composition, gas production and in vitro digestibility of Tilley and Terry but no effect on metabolisable energy. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), Acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of Calobota saharae were high during summer (dry season) and low in spring and winter (wet season). The NDF, ADF and ADL contents ranged from 463.05 to 616.82 and 352.27 to 488.21 and 121.19 to151.73 (g/kg DM) respectively. The CP content was lower (p < 0.05) in summer (96.84 g/kg DM) versus spring (138.85 g/kg DM) and winter (139.42 g/kg DM). The gas and methane production at 24 h incubation varied between 65.75 to 77.75 and 6.50 to 10.17 (ml/g DM) respectively and decreased significantly (p <0.05) from spring to summer. In conclusion, season had a significant effect on the nutritive value of Calobota saharae shrub. Calobota saharae should be grazed or harvested during winter and spring since these seasons provide this shrub with high ME and CP content for ruminant.

18(2) #08
29 Jun 2015
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The field experiment was carried out in the Department of Agronomy of the Poznań University of Life Sciences, in the fields of the Research and Education Unit in Swadzim, in the years 2012–2013. The study examined influence of maize hybrid type (Zea mays L.) and nitrogen doses on nitrogen eutrophication of the environment. The Nmin method was used for assessment of the amount of mineral nitrogen in soil after plant harvest. The N-NO3 form exhibited greater variability when compared to the N-NH4 form. The content of mineral nitrogen in soil after harvest of traditional cultivar SY Cooky was significantly higher in comparison with “stay-green” type cultivar Drim. The amount of Nmin increased in proportion to nitrogen dose. The amount of the nitrate nitrogen form (more susceptible to washing out) rapidly increased after exceeding the dose of 150 kg N·ha-1 when compared to the ammonium form.

18(2) #06
21 May 2015
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In a field experiment conducted in 2005–2007 on light soil, medium-tall leafy field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivar Wiato (dry seed type) and tall leafy pea cultivar Fidelia (green forage/dry seed type) were grown in two-species mixtures with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The aim of the research was to assess the effect of partial separation of the components in the intercrop on barley-pea interaction, canopy lodging, biomass yield and grain production. The species were sown in intercrops using separate passes of the seeder in the same direction, with pea seeded first in regular row spacing of 10.8 cm. The partial species separation was achieved through sowing barley in four different row arrangements in the intercrop: uniform row spacing of 10.8 and 21.6 cm, and alternate row spacing of 10.8/32.4 cm and 10.8/43.2 cm. The intercrop with barley seeded in rows spaced 10.8 cm apart and that with alternate row spacing of 10.8/43.2 cm yielded the same grain during the experimental years. Compared to those, the mixture with alternate 10.8/32.4 cm row spacing of barley yielded significantly less grain in 2005 and 2006.

18(2) #01
08 Apr 2015
Veterinary Medicine
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The third peroneal muscle (m. peroneus tertius s. m. fibularis tertius) is an exclusively tendinous muscle in the horse. It is important component of the reciprocal apparatus, coordinating the flexion and extension of the stifle and hock. The clinical signs associated with this injury are characteristic in appearance: the hock does not flex as the pelvic limb moves forward. During passively flexing the limb, the hock can be moved independently from the stifle. The cause of the rupture is usually trauma. The rupture occurre in the midbody of the third peroneal muscle, at the insertion and at the origin. The location of the rupture can be determined with the use of ultrasonography and radiography. The prognosis of this injury depends on the location and degree of the rupture. The aim of the study was to describe ethiology, diagnosis and treatment of the rupture of the third peroneal muscle in 4-year-old gelded Polish Halfbred Horse.

18(2) #02
09 Apr 2015
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The objective of the study was to determine the rate of growth and cytotoxicity of mycelium of fungus-like organisms Saprolegnia parasitica on media with variable form of available carbon and nitrogen (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Czapek-Dox Agar (CDA)) in magnetic field of 1, 5 and 10 mT. The growth rate of S. parasitica in magnetic field was most varied on SDA medium: the mycelium growth was the slowest in the field of 5 mT compared to the remaining experimental variants and to the control. On MEA and PDA media the growth rate did not vary among the tested field values and the control. The kind of medium and magnetic field had an effect on cytotoxicity of S. parasitica – on SDA medium the mycelium cytotoxicity was reduced to the greatest extent in magnetic field of 5 mT. The phenomenon can be used to increase the effectiveness of stocking material production.

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