EJPAU, 2013, Volume 16, Issue 2

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16(2) #01
22 Apr 2013
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Measurements of maize leaves aim at assessing the photosynthetic capacity of a given species and estimating the impact of habitat and agronomic factors on the size of photosynthetic capacity. The paper presents the results of three-year field experiments whose purpose was to analyze the growth of active organs in the process of photosynthesis of two different maize hybrid types, depending on dose of nitrogen and magnesium in the cob flowering stage. The assessment of the leaf area growth was made based on the assimilation area of a single plant and specific leaf area, leaf weight fraction, stem and ear weight fraction, leaf area index. We found that the "stay-green" hybrid developed fewer leaves per plant, while at the same time their weight increased, compared to the traditional variety. The hybrid ES Paroli SG was characterized by a greater total leaf blade area per plant and LAI.


16(2) #03
10 May 2013
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In this study we indicated a way of producing pullulan using a new strain of  Aureobasidium pullulans, the white mutant B-1. The fungus culture was run in a stirred bioreactor. Five different impeller speeds were applied: 200 rpm, 400 rpm, 600 rpm, 800 rpm, and 1000 rpm. The kinetics of changes in air saturation of medium, the content of pullulan, cell biomass, residual sugar and pH were investigated. The maximum concentrations of pullulan (26.2 g×dm-3) and biomass (14.4 g d.w.×dm-3), and the maximum saccharose consumption (>99%) were achieved in the culture stirred at 800 rpm after 96h of incubation. In this culture, air saturation (DO) has decreased to 45–50% within 36h. That DO value was maintained until the end of fermentation. The pH value has decreased from an initial 6.5 to 5.35. Agitation speeds in the range of 200–600 rpm and at 1000 rpm were not  so beneficial. The respective cultures were characterized by both:  lower biomass yield and lower pullulan content. The B-1 mutant culture with adjusted pH, maintained at  6.5, and agitation rate of 800 rpm was more beneficial for biomass growth (18.5 g d.w.×dm-3) than for pullulan production (16.2 g×dm-3). The data demonstrated that agitation speed influenced pullulan biosynthesis by A. pullulans B-1. Mutant B-1 is suggested as a potential candidate for industrial pullulan production.


16(2) #05
19 Jun 2013
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The study presents the possibility of localization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cytological preparations of seminal roots and coleoptiles of eleven-day-old seedlings of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of rye, subjected to the influence of abiotic stress caused by nitrogen and potassium deficiencies in a medium in in vitro cultures of mature embryos. Fifty-one recombinant inbred lines of rye (F9) considered as tolerant and susceptible to stress caused by nitrogen and potassium deficiencies in a medium were selected for the research. The plants were derived from the F2 generation, obtained from a combination of crossings of inbred lines of rye Ot0-6 and Ot1-3. The response of each line to stress was assessed under the conditions of high and decreased level of N and K in a medium. In the medium with high N and K content the seedlings developed on average longer coleoptiles, shorter the longest roots and less numerous roots in comparison with the medium with low content of N and K. Other described lines included lines which developed shorter coleoptiles and significantly shorter the longest roots on the medium with deficient nitrogen and potassium in comparison with the medium with a high content of nitrogen and potassium. Depending on individual morphological responses of the seedlings, the lines were clustered with the use of Ward's agglomerative method with regard to the response of three seedling traits: coleoptile length, the longest root length and root number. RILs with extreme responses to nutrient stress were identified in the outermost groups of Ward's dendrogram. ROS , mainly H2O2, were visualized in the epidermal part of the elongation zone of the seminal roots of seedlings subjected to the influence of nutrient stress. More intense fluorescence of the fluorescence dye (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) was detected in the seedlings of the lines considered as susceptible to nutrient deficiencies as compared to tolerant lines. The generation of ROS , as important signal molecules provesfunctioning of the molecular mechanisms of sensing and plant cells response to nutrient stress.

16(2) #09
28 Jun 2013
Environmental Development
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There is a report concerning effects of compost application on some basic soil properties as well as chemical composition of leaching waters examined in a lysimeter experiment. Compost samples were produced from municipal solid wastes of the industrial city of Katowice and of Suwałki city in a relatively unpolluted region of Poland north-eastern by Macrum-Dano technology and from sewage sludge from municipal water treatment plant in city of Zambrów by vermicomposting. Composts were mixed with Cambizols and leaching with distilled water started. Experiment lasted 128 days. Leachates were collected and analysed for concentration of nutrients. Comparison of physicochemical properties of the soil before and after leaching showed that pH values were increased and Hh values were reduced in the course of the experiment. Electroconductivity of soil were reduced particularly in Zambrów treatment. Among the studied macronutrients, magnesium content decreased in the most pronounced way whereas the increase of available phosphorus content was found. Nitrates were leached in a relatively short period and only content of NO3-N in the first leachate from Zambrów treatment was higher than threshold values for drinking water.

16(2) #07
26 Jun 2013
Food Science and Technology
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of adding microcapsules (3.75; 5.78, and 7.38%) on the quality of lipids of a potato dish, on the example of Silesian dumplings. Quality of lipids was determined by an analysis of the following factors: peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AsV), TOTOX value, conjugated dienes (CD), acid value (AV), and fatty acid composition. The percentage of EPA and DHA in fish oil was 17,6%, whereas in dumplings it ranged from 12.5 to 14.6% depending on the version under analysis. The technological processing that was carried out during the research did not cause an increase in any of the quality parameters of microcapsule lipids. It was demonstrated that adding 3.75% of microcapsules does not substantially affect the sensation of fish and rancid smell and taste of Silesian noodles. Combining foods rich in complex carbohydrates and fish oil can significantly contribute to reducing EPA and DHA deficits in the diet. A 300 g portion of dumplings (with a 3.75% addition of microcapsules) served as the main course nearly meets the required daily intake of EPA and DHA of 500 mg.

16(2) #02
12 Apr 2013
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical components in heads of some red cabbage cultivars ('Huzaro F1', 'Kalibos','Langedijker Polana', 'Rodeo F1', 'Roxy F1', 'Zelox F1') immediately after harvest and after 5 months of storage at a temperature of 0–1°C. The study determined the content of total and reducing sugars, crude fibre, anthocyanins, flavonoids expressed as quercetin equivalents, phenolic acids expressed as caffeic acid equivalents,  nitrates (V) and (III), and the level of antioxidant activity using DPPH. The content of individual chemical components greatly varied depending on the cultivar and the time from harvest. Immediately after harvest, heads of the cultivars 'Zelox F1'and 'Langedijker Polana' contained the highest amount of total sugars, while' Rodeo F1' and 'Zelox F1' had the highest content of reducing sugars. Long-term storage of heads had a significant effect on increasing the anthocyanin content and slightly increasing the content of flavonoids and phenolic acids. The study also found a significant decrease in the content of nitrates (V) and an increase in the content of nitrates (III). In spite of an increase in the content of some polyphenolic compounds after 5 months of storage of red cabbage heads, antioxidant activity measured as a percentage of DPPH radical reduction did not increase.


16(2) #06
26 Jun 2013
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The influence of increased zinc content in Murashige and Skoog solid medium on the growth and development of the orchid Dendrobium kingianum Bidwill was studied. Sterile explants of pseudobulbs were used for micropropagation of the orchid plant on MS (1962) regeneration medium supplemented with 0.5 mg dm-3 NAA and 1.0 mg dm-3 kinetin. Zinc (as ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was added to all combinations in concentrations 2, 4, 8 and 16 times bigger (17.2, 34.4, 68.8, 137.6 mg dm-3) than the standard content (8.6 mg dm-3) in MS-medium (control). The obtained results showed that treatment with 2 times increased zinc concentration stimulated the plant growth and development. After six and twelve months in in vitro culture the biggest number of shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots and the biggest fresh weight of plants were obtained in media with 2 times greater zinc content than in control (standard content of zinc in MS-medium). However in media with 8 and 16 times bigger zinc content, negative influence of zinc on the biometrical features was noted.

16(2) #08
26 Jun 2013
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On the basis of analysis of leaves one can acquire information on the nutrition status of trees. In the course of the vegetation period changes take place in the level of various minerals in the leaves and shoots. Those changes are the result of processes taking place in the plant, and depend also on the weather conditions in a given year and on the level of yielding. Mother plantations, due to their specific nature (no yielding, strong vegetative growth), differ in the dynamics of uptake of macro-elements. The study was conducted during the period of 1998-2002, on production mother plantations of two apple-tree rootstocks with the greatest economic importance – M.9 and M.26. The chemical composition of leaves and shoots was analysed on three dates (in spring, summer and autumn). The highest content of nitrogen in leaves was noted at the start of vegetation, and the lowest after the termination of growth (end of September). Significant differences in the level of potassium in leaves were noted between June and August. The content of phosphorus in leaves decreased, as did that of magnesium, while the level of calcium increased during the vegetation season. Changes in the content of macro-elements in the shoots of rootstocks were smaller than in the leaves.

16(2) #04
17 May 2013
Veterinary Medicine
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Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a rare form of swine congenital renal malformation in contrast to other species, especially cats and humans. The most affected animals developed renal failure which can lead to death at the neonatal age. PKD was detected in 5 white domestic pigs (Polish Landrasse). All affected pigs are descendants of the same males, but they came from two litters, in one litter 2 of 10 pigs were affected by the disease, in the second litter 3 of 10 pigs. The pigs did not have symptoms of renal failure (to 50 kg of body weight), and the disease was detected incidentally during a routine autopsy examination. Despite PKD is a rare disorder in the swine, it should be monitored in the pig population to avoid its expansion because of its genetic origin.


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