EJPAU, 2010, Volume 13, Issue 2

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13(2) #01
09 Apr 2010
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Field trials were established in 2006 at Gluszyna Lesna (52°18' N, 16°55' E), a 300 hectares Agricultural Farm, near Poznan. Winter wheat, variety Tonacja was the test plant. Three kinds of calcium-bearing fertilizers i.e., (i) CaO – 80% CaO, (ii) CaO + MgO – 60/20 (% basis) CaO/MgO, (iii) CaCO3 – 52% CaO, were applied at four rates: 0, 500, 1000, 1500 kg CaO·ha-1 at the first decade of September 2006. Nitrogen was applied once as NH4NO3 at tillering at the rate 120 kg·ha-1. Soil samples were collected at the depths 0-20 cm at harvest. Soil chemical analyses involved: pH (1 mole KCl·dm-3), exchangeable aluminum (Alex), exchangeable base cations (Caex, Mgex, Kex and Naex, extracted by 1 mole CH3COONH4·dm-3 (pH 7.0). Since soils were acid, the effective CEC (CECe) was then obtained by summation of extractable acidity assessed in 1 mole KCl·dm-3 and exchangeable base cations. From these, indices such as Casat (Ca saturation); Alsat (Al saturation) and CAB (Calcium-Aluminum Balance), were calculated and applied for testing winter wheat (yield, mainly) response to calcium and aluminum interactions under acid and very acid soil conditions. Results have revealed, that part of CAB indices shifted towards aluminum for both calcium-bearing fertilizers, i.e., CaO and CaO + MgO, as a result of Al prevalence over Ca in investigated soils. This implies the worsening of plant growth conditions related to the shortage of adequate calcium levels and hence relatively low grain yields. It appeared also, that grain yield remained still relatively appreciable, (CAB raised up to 1.00) for both cases i.e., CaO and CaO + MgO. The effect of CaO + MgO on plant growth was mediated by nitrogen and magnesium. The application of CaCO3 raised CAB indices above 1.0 and even up to 1.4, which was the highest among these three fertilizers. Of additional value was the response of winter wheat yield to calcium and aluminum levels expressed as Casat, Alsat. It was shown, that irrespective of applied calcium-bearing fertilizers i.e., CaO, CaO + MgO, and CaCO3, grain yield increased along with Ca saturation levels. However the opposite trend was observed in the case of Alsat, where the increase in aluminum saturation led decidedly and systematically to yield decrease being the lowest at Alsat ca 35–40% (CaO, CaO+MgO) and 25% (CaCO3).

13(2) #02
13 Apr 2010
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North African catfish C. gariepinus is of great commercial importance both in fisheries and aquaculture. In Poland it has been introduced for aquaculture purposes in early 90.  However this is the first detailed description of the north African catfish population cultured under condition of the heated water aquaculture in Poland. The objective of the present work was to fill a gap in the knowledge on the African catfish by examining in detail the morphometric characters.The material used to study meristic and morphometric characters consisted of 100 individuals collected from the rearing ponds, measuring from 9.0 to 26.0 cm in total length (TL), the mean length being 18.1 cm. Taxonomic analysis involved 15 morphometric and 7 meristic characters, including as well the relationships among them.

13(2) #03
15 Apr 2010
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The survey was based on interviews with owners of 123 family farms was carried out in two communes: Klukowo and Kulesze Kościelne located in a western part of Podlasie province, Poland. The 32 variables which characterize socio-economic and agricultural condition of the farms were obtained from the questionnaires. The main aims of the survey were characterization of diversity and typology according farming system. The used statistical methods were principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. On the base of the results 6 different types of farms were distinguished and characterized.

13(2) #04
16 Apr 2010
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The paper shows the results of different types of food used in rearing and the impact of the food on the further survival and growth of brown trout fry (Salmo trutta m.  fario L.) in the wild. Rearing of larvae was conducted in three groups: 1) zooplankton-fed group, 2) chironomids-fed group and 3) pellet-fed group. During the rearing period, the pellet-fed group reached the greatest SGR value – 4.25% day-1, while the zooplankton-fed group reached 4.25% day-1. The chironomid-fed group were characterised by the lowest SGR value (1.94% day-1). In the wild, the zooplankton-fed group achieved the greatest rate of survival (60%) and high data of SGR (2.23% day-1). The zooplankton-fed group's survival and growth rate was higher than the pellet-fed group survival (38%) and SGR (1.87% day-1). In the wild, the chironomid-fed group reached the lowest rates of survival (23%), but the fork length and weight results were not different in comparison to the zooplankton-fed group. Moreover, the SGR result of this group was the highest – 2.55% day-1. We stated that rearing of brown trout larvae on live zooplankton had a positive effect on survival and growth of brown trout fry in the wild.

13(2) #05
30 Apr 2010
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It was found that deep growth depressions which occurred between 1981 and 1983 in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) in the Słowiński National Park and neighboring forests (Damnica Forest District) were the consequence of the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) outbreak. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), growing in the same area, was free of mass feeding of this foliophagous insect. Mean widths of annual rings of both these pine species in a 5-year period in which the nun moth outbreak occurred were smaller than mean widths in 5-year periods before and after the outbreak. These differences were statistically significant. It was also found that the effect of the nun moth feeding on diameter growth of Scots and black pines growing on a dry coniferous forest site was lower than in the case of a fresh mixed coniferous forest site. These differences were statistically significant.

13(2) #06
04 May 2010
Animal Husbandry
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The present study aimed at determination of the effect of backfat thickness in different measuring points on the body at first mating in pure-bred Polish Large White (PLW) gilts and Polish Large White x Polish Landrace (PLW x PL) hybrid gilts on their reproduction performance. Also an attempt was made to estimate an optimum backfat thickness at which the gilt breeding should be initiated.
Backfat thickness measurements were made using a PIGLOG 105 ultrasonic apparatus on the right-hand side of animal body in 6 points. Litter production traits were analysed, expressed by the number and the weight of piglets on day 1 and 21 of life as well as the number of piglets on day of weaning from sow and weaning to first service interval. In order to perform statistical analysis, the gilts examined were divided into groups, taking into account different backfat thickness at mating measured over the shoulder in points P1a and P1b, on the mid-back in points P2a and P2b and on the low back in points P3a and P3b.
Measurements of backfat thickness over the shoulder (points P1a and P1b) as well as those on the mid-back in point P2a are particularly important on day of mating in pure-bred PLW gilts. In case when the backfat thickness over the shoulder on day of mating was above 23 mm and on the mid-back was above 15 mm, the sows gave birth and reared significantly more piglets in the first litter (P≤0.05; P≤0.01). It was showed that measurement of backfat thickness in hybrid sows at mating in points P1b and P2a has a significant effect (P≤0.05) on the litter size and the weight of born piglets (point P2a). In the second reproduction cycle, PLW sows showed significant differences (P≤0.01) with respect to the litter weight on day 21 of life (points P1b and P3a), and in point P2a (P≤0.05). When analysing the reproduction performance traits in hybrid gilts according to thinner or thicker backfat on day of mating, it was observed that the number of piglets born in total was significantly larger (P≤0.05) in the group of primiparous sows with thicker backfat over the shoulder in point P1b at mating and with thicker backfat at point P2a. In the second reproduction cycle, sows PLW with thicker backfat at mating reared litters with a larger weight.

13(2) #07
14 May 2010
Agricultural Engineering
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Muskeg covers a significant portion of the land mass in Iran and elsewhere. It creates considerable difficulties for surface transportation. To evaluate the vehicle mobility over muskeg, it is essential to establish a procedure for identifying and characterizing those mechanical properties of muskeg that are of importance from a vehicle mobility viewpoint. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanical properties of muskeg site at the research farm of College of Abouraihan with a bevameter. Tests were carried out on muskeg with three levels of volumetric moisture content (13%, 34% and 86%) using circular sinkage plates which were mounted on a bevameter. Tests were replicated three times for each of the three levels of moisture content with circular sinkage plates. Results indicated that the size of plates and the moisture content significantly influenced the values of critical pressure (pcr) and critical sinkage (zcr).

13(2) #08
18 May 2010
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Flow cytometry (FC) was used for measuring ploidity and number of cells  at each phase of the cell cycle  of four Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains. Synchronization at G0/G1-phase was partially achieved by carbon source starvation, followed by glucose addition. Approximately 10 000 cells were analyzed by measuring the fluorescence of propidium iodine (PI) bound to DNA after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 hours of glucose addition to the starved cells population. Estimation of cells percentage at each cycle phase was achieved by Cylchred and WinMDI analysis of obtained data. However complete synchronization was not obtained for any of the strains, the generation time representing time interval between two maxima of cells at S phase was determined. The shortest generation time was noted for Y. lipolytica AWG7 (1h).
Comparison of histograms of all tested strains with a haploid type strain proved their haploidy.

13(2) #09
24 May 2010
Food Science and Technology
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Selected physicochemical characteristics and organoleptic attributes of UHT sterilized goat's milk were evaluated. Two kinds of UHT goat's milk were obtained in the retail market and stored at room temperature (21°C±1°C) for 6 months. The examined milk was analysed for water, fat and protein content, titratable acidity, active acidity and hydroxymethylfurfural content. The experimental goat's milk was also subjected to rheological analysis based on evaluation of viscosity.
It was found that during storage, UHT sterilized goat's milk was characterized by fairly stable organoleptic attributes and proper chemical composition, which slightly differed from manufacturer specifications. The results obtained confirmed significant differences in active acidity, titratable acidity and viscosity of the examined samples. Moreover, significant increases in titratable acidity, viscosity and total hydroxymethylfurfural content were observed in UHT goat's milk during storage.

13(2) #10
26 May 2010
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Nauplii of Artemia salina have not been widely applied in rearing of commercial salmonids, much more often they have been used in rearing of larvae of other species, in particular cyprinids. The present study shows results of rearing of Atlantic salmon larvae and sea trout larvae with Artemia nauplii.
The rearing was performed for 4 weeks in three groups: (1) fry fed with live nauplii of Artemia salina, (2) fry fed with mixed diet (live Artemia salina nauplii and commercial pellet diet for trout larvae and (3) only pellet diet. The rate of survival of both species in all groups representing different variants of feeding was very high, but in each variant the survival of Atlantic salmon was greater than that of sea trout. Larvae of Atlantic salmon and sea trout fed on mixed diet characterized by the best rate of survival and growth. In the last week of rearing the highest condition index was noted for the larvae of both species fed on mixed diet, similarly high condition index was found also for the Atlantic salmon fed on pellets. The results of this study shows that the use of live Artemia nauplii as a diet supplement brings satisfactory results in the whole period of rearing.

13(2) #11
27 May 2010
Food Science and Technology
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On the market of Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no any available marmalade or similar finished product with ability to form stable gel after re-heating. Our work was designed in aim to create marmalade useful for filling, before sourdough doughnuts heating during baking in oven or preparing deep-fried products. Experiment was designed in two parts. Marmalades were prepared in laboratory conditions from frozen peach and apple purée (pulp) in two combinations, 8 samples with 70% peach : 30% apple (1 sample with min. 70%, 5 samples with min. 67%  and 2 samples with min. 45% dry matter) and 3 samples with 50% peach : 50% apple (samples with min. 67% dry matter). Other ingredients used for marmalade preparations are sugar and additives in different proportion: gelling agents from producers DANISCO-CULTOR (GRINSTED FB-850) and OBIPECTIN (PECTIN BROWN RIBBON J, PECTIN PURPLE RIBBON B, PECTIN PURPLE RIBBON D-075 X), firming agent calcium chloride (E 509), acidity regulator sodium citrates (E 331) and citric acid (E 330). Prepared samples were pasteurized and hot filled in glass jars and closed with twist-off caps. For quality and chemical composition control of marmalade, we determined dry matter, total acids and pH. After 20 days storing on room temperature, for sensory analysis and stability control of thermo-reversible gel, we prepared doughnuts filled with samples of marmalade and baked in home electric oven. Doughnuts were prepared from BERLINER MIX (IREKS AROMA D.O.O.) and according recommended recipe. After sensory analysis of 11 marmalade samples before and after re-heating, 4 samples were selected for further investigation and tried to make products acceptable quality and with minimally necessary quantity of additives. 12 marmalades were prepared with 70% peach : 30% apple purée (pulp) (3 samples with min. 70%, 9 samples with min. 67% dry matter). After sensory analysis before and after baking in doughnuts 2 marmalades were selected, marmalade produced with DANISCO-CULTOR (GRINSTED FB-850) gelling additive and other with OBIPECTIN PECTIN (BROWN RIBBON J). Both samples had expected sensory quality after re-heating and cooling on room temperature, orange-light-brown colour, specific aroma of peach and apple, and as the most important evaluated sensory attributes were appearance and texture of homogeneous, medium-strong firm gel, useful for filling of doughnuts baked in oven and similar products.

13(2) #12
28 May 2010
Food Science and Technology
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The word "traditional" is not properly defined and, for this reason (consciously or not) it is used rather incorrectly. The history of food and feeding started when human beings first appeared in this world and ate to survive. In the beginning, humans led nomadic lives and later they grew new plant species and became animal hunters and breeders.
Eating habits cannot be separated from culture, religion, morality or medicine. The first humans fed like vultures. The meat they ate was not matured. As time went by, they started to look for ways of making it taste better. At the same time, food became a factor which brought social distinction to human communities.
The European culinary art started by adopting Muslim eating habits. The Renaissance saw the rejection of the Arabic influence and new importance was given to dairy products, vegetables and mushrooms. The bourgeoisie started to adopt foods eaten by the nobility.
Traditional food is a guide to our culture. In the early 1990s, the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and certificates of specific character systems were introduce in Europe. These regulations sought to provide a simple system of protection.
Creating a List of Traditional Products in Poland in 2004 aimed at granting distinction to products with unique quality, which they owed to old recipes and traditional production methods. As of 8 March 2010, 722 products had been granted distinction.
An analysis of the market of traditional food in Poland highlights the strong and weak points of actions which aim at cultivating the tradition. The strong points include the possibility of protecting the names and brands of products, the development of rural areas and increasing the touristic attractiveness of regions. Threats and barriers should be seen in the lack of clearly defined state policy, including the relevant legal, administrative and economic regulations.

13(2) #13
31 May 2010
Environmental Development
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Erosion risk in Poland is generally well recognized. The first country wide map in mid-scale map of potential water erosion risk was produced in '80 according to the qualitative method of potential water erosion risk (PWER) indicator, developed by Anna and Czeslaw Jozefaciuk. The potential erosion risk indicator corresponds to an erosion thread for the soil without any plant cover. It bases on relatively static factors of slope, soil texture and average annual rainfall, distinguishing five grades of erosion intensity. The indicator provides no information on the real and actual state of erosion risk,  which depends mostly from the kind of land use. Anna and Czesław Józefaciuk from the Pulawy Erosion Research Center, located in the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, developed methodology for the qualitative indicator of actual water erosion risk (AWER), which includes a land use factor, as well as the factor for erosion prevention techniques.
The work includes the production of an actual water erosion map, based on the digitized map of potential water erosion at a scale of 1:300.000 and CORINE Land Cover 2006. The results show relative high actual erosion risk in highest intensities – up to 1.7% of Poland under the very strong erosion, up tp 0.9% under strong erosion and up to 4.4% under medium erosion. Compared to potential water erosion, where the same grades cover 17.6% of country's area, the erosion risk at high grades decreased by 10.6%. The values are almost identical to the results of AWER assessment performed basing upon CORINE CLC2000 (10), however the general trend is decreasing for the erosion risk grades: 0, 1, 2 and 4; while grades 3 and 5 very slightly increased. According to the land use structure derived from CLC2006, up to 2.18 million hectares (compared to 2.23 million in 2000) remain under the risk of water erosion in high erosion intensity grades and requires erosion control measures.

13(2) #14
01 Jun 2010
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The soil is an irreplaceable ecological factor in forests where it participates in the nutrition of tree species and in their overall health status. Whether the predisposition roles of soils are manifested as multivariate sets of mutually interacting variables was tested on examples of the multivariate evaluation of properties of forest floor, top-soil and diagnostic horizons in the area of the Silesian Beskids afflicted by the decline of spruce stands. The material was collected in eleven selected spruce, spruce-beech and beech stands where samples of Cambisols, Podzols and Stagnosols were taken. Using the principal component analysis (PCA) we compared soil pH, passive parts of the sorption complex from extraction in BaCl2, soil carbon and nitrogen, total element contents and hydrophysical properties in the particular horizons. Factor analysis separated mutually correlative subsets (d) from the spectrum of variables. Component weights were transformed to d-dimensional vectors (CV). For each vector its angular deviation from the central plane was determined. The goniometric relation |CV|/sina made it possible to compare the variables of horizons in factor planes by the analysis of variance. The synergies of three multivariate factors were found out. In the forest floor the pedomorphic factor set based on the characteristics of litterfall is the most important. In mineral horizons the roles of mineral-predisposition and hydrophysical factors are also significant. Differences in cation exchange capacity, total carbon and total iron cause the relatively largest permanent differences among the investigated horizons and probably reflect the overall spatial diversity of soil units in the area concerned.

13(2) #15
18 Jun 2010
Food Science and Technology
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The study focused on processing quality of milk used for acid-curd cheese (tvarog) production, obtained from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows (Black-and-White variety) either fed a total mixed ration (TMR) or conventional feeds. Milk for analyses was collected six times per year, in about two months' intervals. The milk was analysed for density, acidity, and the content of fat, protein, and lactose. Fat dry matter content, non fat dry matter content, and protein:fat ratio were calculated. Thermal stability of milk was evaluated using alcohol (ethanol) tests. Titratable acidity, pH, hardness, and drip loss were measured in ready tvarog products. The cheese was also subjected to sensory evaluation. A marked effect of the feeding system on the composition and physico-chemical properties of milk was observed. Milk of cows fed conventional feeds contained more fat and dry matter, whereas that obtained from cows fed a TMR usually contained more crude protein, casein, and fat-less dry matter; it was also of higher density. Acid-curd cheeses produced from milk of a TMR-fed cows had a slightly better flavour, and also contained more water. Tvarogs made from milk of conventionally fed cows, on the other hand, contained more fat. The latter product was usually harder in texture. No direct linkage was found between acidity of tvarog or a drip loss thereof and the feeding system of cows.

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