EJPAU, 2007, Volume 10, Issue 3

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10(3) #01
03 Jul 2007
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One-year old trees of ‘Fantasia’ nectarine on the rootstock of Manchurian peach-tree were planted in 2004 in Przybroda near Poznań in the spacing of 4 × 2.5 m. The trees differed by their thickness (11-13 and >13-15 mm). Tree rows were mulched by fibre sheets or by mown grass. Equal irrigation and fertilization as well as other cultivation treatments were applied. Growth was estimated every year and in the third year, tree health was evaluated. Studies have shown that different thickness of planted trees had no significant effect on their growth in the first years in the orchard. Both the TCSA increments taking place every year and the height and projection of crown did not differ. The applied mulches protected well the soil against weeds. Herbicides were applied in tree rows next to mowed grass mulch. The type of mulch differentiated tree growth. Trees mulched with fibre sheets grew better than those mulched with mown grass; TCSA increments were greater, tree crowns were higher and they had a greater projection. Differentiated mulching did not have any significant effect on tree health, infection by Taphrina deformans and on symptoms of bark and wood diseases.

10(3) #02
04 Jul 2007
Veterinary Medicine
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For the purpose of the study, self-produced polyclonal rabbit anti-DBP serum as well as sera from various animal species were used. In double immunodiffusion, a cross-reaction was demonstrated between human anti-DBP serum and sera from all the remaining animals: horse, pig, dog, cattle, cat, mouse, rat, sheep, goat. The character and intensity of the ongoing precipitation reaction were also determined. The strong cross-reaction was observed with dog and cat serum, intermediate – with pig, horse and mouse, and weak with cattle, sheep, goat and rat. The molecular mass of DBP in selected species was assessed using SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting and was estimated in horse, cat and goat sera as 51 kDa, in dog and cattle sera – 49 kDa, in human serum – 48 kDa, in pig serum – 47 kDa, in rat and mouse sera – 44 kDa).

10(3) #03
10 Jul 2007
Agricultural Engineering
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The post-harvest drying and cooling of cereal grain in silos are becoming an increasingly popular methods of grain preservation for long-term storage. Grain in silos is dried in a thick layer and, in order to reduce costs of this process, an low-cost and reliable method for the measuring of changes in the moisture content in the grain bed is needed. Acting on the assumption that the drying air enthalpy during this process does not change the authors presents in this article a stochastic mathematical model allowing moisture content estimation on the basis of the drying air temperature changes.

10(3) #04
11 Jul 2007
Animal Husbandry
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Lowered calcium concentration in feed mixture from 11.0 to 9.1 g kg-1 and phosphorus content from 7.0 to 6.0 g kg-1 has decreased the body weight in 28 day of life, as well as Ca and Cu accretion in organism, however the phosphorus, magnesium and manganese retention was better in group fed diet with lower Ca/P content. Better bone mechanical quality parameters and higher Ca amounts in bones were obtained in chicken fed diets containing a higher Ca and P amounts in the diets; in the P, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn content in bone ash only small variations were observed.

10(3) #05
13 Jul 2007
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The aim of this research was to enlarge knowledge about variation between populations of the English yew from southern Poland. This aim was realized by investigating morphological features of needles, shoots and seeds of yews from southern Poland. Researches show that there are significant differences in morphological features between populations from southern Poland. The lowest diversity between individuals was found in the nature reserve “Liswarta”, while the highest one was found in “Mogilno” and “Cisowa Góra” for the features of needles and seeds respectively. Average length of needles of Taxus baccata individuals growing in southern Poland is 23.5 mm (range from 15.4 to 36.6 mm), width – 2.4 mm (range from 1.8 to 3.1 mm), area – 57 mm2 (range from 32.4 to 94.5 mm2), relation between needle length and width (slim coefficient) – 9.8 (range from 6.8 to 14.3), dry matter of 1000 needles – 5.11 g (range from 1.7 to 17.5 g). Needles dimensions depend on individual genotype and grow simultaneously with age. The results obtained for needles age groups are highly correlated. Needles dry matter is high correlated with precipitation on corresponding nature reserve area and show the highest variability. Average yearly increment of shoots is 5 cm (range from 1 to 16 cm) and depends on genetic and environmental factors together. Average length of seeds is 5.6 mm, width – 4.4 mm and thickness – 4.0 mm. Average wet and dry matter of 1000 seeds is 54 and 47 g respectively and is high correlated with seeds dimensions.

10(3) #06
08 Aug 2007
Veterinary Medicine
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In this study we demonstrated that concomitant, intraperitoneal administration of T8 and A5 bacteriophages with lethal doses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, protected CBA mice against lethality and significantly reduced the number of CFUs in the organs 24h after infection. In the case of P. aeruginosa infection, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 were not significantly altered by bacteriophages. On the other hand, the levels of these cytokines were significantly elevated upon administration of bacteriophages during S. aureus infection. The relevance of the phage-induced changes in the cytokine levels to the protection of mice against Gram-negative and Gram-positive sepsis is discussed.

10(3) #07
09 Aug 2007
Civil Engineering
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Constructing of ground floors has had a long history. They had been built earlier than typical buildings. Primitive people living in caves isolated their habitats by means of trampled grouts from clay that were modified by dried organic material. They did it to improve their living conditions. These were the first realizations of floors. This indicates that the problem is old but nethertheless important even today. The same goals are achieved nowadays and more modern materials and technologies are used. Using the best solutions concerning the floors is required not only in dwelling building. With the development of industry and road communication the new problems concerning the use of proper surface solutions have appeared. Much attention has been paid to these problems lately. The International Colloquia organized in Technical Academy in Esslingen with dr P. Seidler direction have been taking place since 1987 for every four years At the WPPK conference in Ustroń (2000) a lot of papers concerning the industrial floors were presented. Taking it under consideration, in the presented paper, only the selected issues concerning structural-material solutions of concrete ground floors are presented.

The main function of the ground floor is to transmit static and dynamic loads and to save performance over required time in environment of the influence of different agents. Because of the hard exploitation conditions, together with the influence of different agents that destruct the ground floors, they must fulfill some usable requirements. To fulfill the service life requirements that are connected with the concrete ground floors, they must get the proper structure. To estimate the exertion of the analyzed concrete ground floors, it is necessary to take into consideration the complex state of stresses, which takes palace where the floor slab is subjected to pointed loads. The method, which makes possible to include the complex state of stresses in ground concrete slab calculations and to estimate the level of slab stresses in characteristic, analyzed of Wetergaard’s places objected by loads, has been proposed.

That is why only some issues, connected with this topic, are presented in this paper. The model of concrete slab exertion, which makes possible to take under consideration the complex state of stresses in the slab at the place of putting the loads, is proposed. On the basis of considerations, analyses and calculations the method of defining the vertical susceptibility of the subsoil in the function of the subsoil deformation modulus is proposed. The selected issues connected with the structural solutions of concrete ground floors are presented as well.

10(3) #08
10 Aug 2007
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The hydrochemical survey of Lake Dabie – an integral part of the upper estuary of the Odra River – was carried out in the years 1997-2000. The study was aimed at demonstrating a relationship between anthropogenic pollution and environmental conditions. Water samples were collected at six stations in each season of the temperate climate zone. The analyses covered water temperature, concentrations of phenol, surface-active agents, and petroleum ether-extractable substances, gene-ral measures of organic matter load (BOD5, CODMn, CODCr), chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxy-gen. Water temperature ranged between 3.8°C and 23.4°C (annual mean temperature 13.2°C). Dissolved oxygen content ranged between 2.2 and 16.3 mg O2·dm-3, with oxygen percent satur-ation ranging between 40.3 and 164.0%. The measures of organic matter concentrations were as follows: CODCr 10.0-49.2 mgO2·dm-3, BOD5 1.1-7.4 mgO2·dm-3, chlorophyll a 2.2-327.9 mg·m-3. The concentrations of petroleum ether-extractable substances ranged from 3.0 mg·dm-3 to 22.7 mg·dm-3, phenol from 0.013 to 0.100 mg·dm-3, and anionic surfactants from 0.018 to 0.147 mg LAS·dm-3. Statistical analyses has revealed a weak influence of water flow on the values of the analysed parameters. The correlations between surfactants, ether extract and the flow were negative (respectively, r = -0.40 and r = -0.20). The phenol-flow correlation was positive (r = 0.30). Chemical oxygen demand was highly positively correlated with the substances extracted with petroleum ether (r = 0.60) and negatively correlated with anionic surfactants (r = -0.40). Biochemical oxygen demand was positively correlated with the content of chlorophyll a, particularly in lake Dabie (r = 0.70).

10(3) #09
29 Aug 2007
Wood Technology
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The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the method of the application of the theory of the work of cutting distribution from the flat cutting to milling. Calculating the work of cutting and work of cutting components based on forces measured at flat cutting is easier but less precise, and the cutting conditions are less similar to the industrial ones. Determining the work of cutting distribution based on measuring of forces in milling gives more accurate and realistic results but there is a necessity to apply more complicated and expensive measurement equipment.

10(3) #10
31 Aug 2007
Food Science and Technology
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Digestibility of food grade modified starches were examined by the controlled enzymatic hydrolysis with the mixture of pancreatic alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The structure and physicochemical properties of the experimental starch samples were examined by the Brabender rheological method, light microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. It was found that investigated food grade modified starches revealed reduced digestibility-up to about 10%. The extent of decrease of digestibility depends on the degree of substitution of modified starches, but this correlation is not linear. Granular food grade modified starches reveal unchanged crystal structure, identical as native starch. The modification of starch changes its physicochemical properties i.e. pasting profile, gelatinisation temperature and solubility in water, however these changes do not correlate with digestibility. Changes in conformation of starch macromolecules in solution, caused by incorporation of modifying groups, hinder enzymatic action of amylases and cause a drop in digestibility of starch.

10(3) #11
06 Sep 2007
Wood Technology
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A study was undertaken to determine creep characteristics of furniture panels, both unlaminated and laminated, in cyclic humidity conditions. Test specimens were prepared from laminated and unlaminated moisture resistant MDF. Two types of laminating materials were used: melamine laminate and hardwood (mountain ash Eucalyptus regnans) veneer. Specimens were subjected to four-point bending loads with a single stress level of 15% using vertical creep testing rigs. Relative humidity was set to be cycled between 35% and 85%, and the temperature was set at a constant level of 23°C. Centre-point deflection of the specimens was measured using Linear Variable Displacement Transducers.
The study revealed that the creep behaviour of MDF panels subjected to cyclic humidity can be significantly reduced by using surface laminations. The greatest reductions in relative creep values in bending of MDF panels (up to 3.3 times), were observed in the panels laminated with melamine surface overlays. The total relative creep values of the panels laminated with hardwood veneer were half those without any laminations. This finding will be useful in the design of wood-based furniture panels used in shelving and bottoms of cupboards.
Analysis of the creep deflection during the adsorption and desorption stages revealed that there was the difference in the performance of laminated and unlaminated panels. The creep deformation in the laminated panels increased during the adsorption phase and decreased during the desorption phase. In the unlaminated panels, reversal of the creep deflection during the cyclic humidity test was observed. A significant loss of both MOE and internal bond strength in evaluated furniture panels was observed after the creep test and the recovery period. It was evident that the use of laminations reduced these losses, with the highest reduction observed in the panels with melamine overlays followed by the hardwood veneer laminations.

10(3) #12
25 Sep 2007
Food Science and Technology
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The objective of the study was to determine influence of titanium treatment on selected quality traits of strawberry fruits. The fruit of six strawberry cultivars (‘Dukat’, ‘Elkat’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Kent’, ‘Selva’ and ‘Senga Sengana’) were obtained from commercial plantation localized near Szczecin. The experiment was carried out in 2004. ‘Tytanit’ spraying (Ti4+ ascorbate) was applied 3 times according to the recommendations for this treatment. Control plants remained not sprayed. The response of the cultivars to titanium was not unequivocal. Positive response was found for ‘Elsanta’, ‘Senga Sengana’, Selva’ and Kent’ berries as far as total anthocyanin content is concerned (increase by 5 - 44%). The treated fruits of ’Selva’ cultivar showed higher values of the all color parametres (L*, a*, b*, C*, h) compared to non-treated berries whereas ‘Kent’, ‘Dukat’ and ‘Senga Sengana’ ones lower. The most stimulating effect of ‘Tytanit’ usage on fruit chemical composition was found for ‘Dukat’ berries. These fruits under titanium treatment showed higher dry weight content, higher soluble solids content, higher titratable acidity and higher soluble solids: titratable acidity ratio compared to non-treated strawberries.

10(3) #13
26 Sep 2007
Veterinary Medicine
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The study aimed at describing a rare in veterinary practice case of parallel manifestation of various tumour types in canine testes. Samples of the altered testes were fixed in 7% buffered formalin, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin blocks. Mouse monoclonal antibodies were used to detect expression of proliferation antigen, Ki-67 in paraffin sections of the tumours. Microscopical examination of the right testicle detected neoplastic proliferation of seminoma type while in the left testicle of the same dog sertolioma was disclosed. In the former tumour expression of proliferation associated antigen, Ki-67 was appraised at (+++) while in sertolioma it was appraised at (-).

10(3) #14
27 Sep 2007
Environmental Development
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This paper describes the most often found effects of the drainage system degradation or alteration in the Lower Silesian palace and mansion parks set up in fertile habitats. Based on an example of the landscape setting in Królikowice, the research results on the issue are discussed and the proposed concepts of its restoration are presented. The discussion makes references to classical preservation models for restoration of garden art objects, identifying the needs for more research and studies and for the application of ecological principles to shaping vegetation settings which have undergone transformations as a result of changes in water conditions, as is the case with the Lower Silesian parks.

10(3) #15
28 Sep 2007
Veterinary Medicine
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The objective of the study was to compare rapid field tests used for the determination of β-hydroxybutyrate acid or glucose concentration in the diagnosis of sub-clinical ketosis in cows. β-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHBA) concentration in milk was determined with the use of Keto-TestTM strip test, while BHBA and glucose in full blood were determined by means of MediSense Optium glucometer. These parameters were also determined with an analytical, enzymatic and oxidase method. Mean BHBA and glucose concentration in blood plasma amounted to 715.04 μmol·dm3 and 3.39 mmol·dm3 (analytically), and in full blood 670.83 μmol·dm3 and 3.50 mmol·dm3 (glucometer), respectively. The usefulness of MediSense Optium glucometer for the diagnosis of sub-clinical ketosis in individual cows as well as the herd-based was found. Sensitivity and specificity of the glucometer was 100% (cut-point >1400 µmol·dm3 BHBA). Sensitivity and specificity of Keto-Test were lower. The test should be used in individual cows. Statistically high correlation (0.92 and 0.78; p<0.01) between BHBA concentration and glucose determined with glucometer (full blood) and analytical method (blood plasma) was found.

10(3) #16
29 Sep 2007
Animal Husbandry
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We presented a practical and efficient parentage analysis test for raccoon dogs. The method makes use of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parentage control was performed for 3 generations of raccoon dog (207 animals altogether) by amplification of microsatellites. Exclusion probabilities ranging from 0.959 assuming one known parent to 0.998 assuming both known parents, were attained. It is possible to use the set of 15 markers in this study for routine parentage testing, but further research should be done to examine whether the set are practically effective. Microsatellite markers are useful tools for parentage testing in raccoon dogs.

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