EJPAU, 2019, Volume 22, Issue 1

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22(1) #03
28 Mar 2019
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Agricultural development faces serious challenges in Nigeria. Discovery of petroleum in commercial quantity in the early 1970s appears to have retarded output growth in the sector because there was a shift from agriculture to oil and gas. Therefore, the country has gone through quite a variety of ordeal in food production since the oil boom era. Government has formulated policies and programmes to address the performance of agriculture. It appears many of these efforts have failed resulting in large scale food imports and consequent adverse balance of payments. With the aim to devise a path to output growth, steps to attain value chain are examined in this paper having reviewed previous studies. Descriptive method is employed to achieve the study’s objectives. It is revealed, among others issues, that value chain is required in the agricultural sector. However, it necessitates transformation of farmers from peasantry to commercial farming which will require human capital development in agriculture. Some complementary factors like infrastructure and extension services are needed. Save farm land are to be guaranteed by the states and communities. It is suggested that government participation is needed significantly to attain value chain in agriculture in Nigeria because government appears to be the major resource owner since independence.
22(1) #01
06 Feb 2019
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Management, genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat quality, mainly in terms of their effects on grain protein content and its composition. The objectives of this study were to determine the impacts of management intensity factors on bread-making wheat quality and contributions of cultivar, environment, and their interaction on the variation in quality traits, and to analyze the relationships between grain parameters. The data used for the analyses were obtained from 8 locations in Poland from post-registration multi-environment trials using 25 winter wheat cultivars at two crop management levels. Our results indicate that most sources of variation in grain quality traits were significant and that the variability of these traits, to a great extent, was dependent on the environments rather than cultivar. The most sensitive variables to environment were the grain yield and grain protein content. Moreover, yearly weather conditions affected the set of variables that describe the grain quality of winter wheat. On the basis of the mean values and standard deviations of the examined cultivars, it was possible to select cultivars that are characterized by stable grain quality, which is expected by farmers and the baking industry.

22(1) #02
27 Feb 2019
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Filamentous fungi are a large group of eukaryotic organisms capable of growth in different environmental niches. The variety of filamentous fungi occurring on building materials is still increasing. In this paper, 19 strains were isolated from deteriorated walls and floor coverings of houses in Opole and Lower Silesia, Poland. The identification of  fungi growing on construction materials was based on microscopic assessment (according the presence or absence of particular, characteristic structures) and molecular identification by  sequence homology of highly diverse regions of ITS1 and ITS2. Obtained isolates were classified into Penicillium, Lecanicillium and Candida genera. Most of the strains (17), have been assigned to the genus Penicillium according to sequence fragments from GenBank Database. The length of the ITS1 region of most isolates was closely related to the length of this region of P. chrysogenum species. The PCR products sequencing confirmed that isolates NK1 and NK2 were P. chrysogenum, the isolate NK3 L. lecanii and theisolateNK12 P. griseoroseum. The isolates Dyw1b, Dyw2, Dyw4, Dyw5b, Dyw6, Dyw7 belonged to the Penicilium genus, however exhibited some differences. The presence of L. lecanii in deteriorated materials was rather surprising but the isolated strain revealed interesting properties. Its spores and biomass are potential biological insecticide agents.

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