EJPAU, 2015, Volume 18, Issue 1

No /
Available Online
Sort By:
Date - Discipline - Title
Hide Abstracts
18(1) #06
12 Mar 2015
Civil Engineering
citation  abstract  html 

Tabique construction corresponds to a relevant Portuguese heritage. Urban and rural tabique constructions exist all over the country. This traditional building technique started to be in disuse after the massive introduction of the reinforced concrete. Therefore, tabique buildings are already aged and, in general, they show signs of degradation. Recent research works led to the conclusion that this degradation stage is essentially caused by the absence of a regular and proper maintenance. The fact that tabique buildings are mainly private property, that there are economical limitations and that there is still a lack of knowledge concerning this traditional building technique, have been the main reasons identified to its degradation. In order to contribute to solve this problem, this paper intends to give an input on the characterization of timber frame structural system of tabique walls. In fact, a tabique building element is a structural system formed by a timber frame coated with an earth render. Technical information related to distinct traditional structural solutions are given and may be helpful in future rehabilitation processes.

18(1) #05
27 Feb 2015
citation  abstract  html 

Endophytic Bacillus spp. can promote plant growth but the specific mechanisms involved in such interrelationships have not all been well characterized. A sub-sample of 7 strains putative endophytic Bacillus spp. isolated from different maize cultivars were tested as seed inoculants of host-cultivar of maize and winter wheat under laboratory conditions. The tested strains showed different level of plant growth promoting attributes like indole-3-acetic acid production and antagonistic activity against several phytopathogens in vitro. None of the Bacillus strains stimulated seedling development of the host maize cultivar and winter wheat on sterile water agar. Three strains, B. methylotrophicus A17, B. simplex A8 and B. megaterium A66 were found to harmfully affect seed germination under abiotic conditions. Above-mentioned 3 strains and also B. aerophilus A62 and B. megaterium A54 inhibited primary root development of the maize host cultivar. On the contrary, only B. megaterium A53 neutral to native cultivar had a deleterious effect on seed germination of non-host winter wheat plants.

Studies in vitro of endophytic Bacillus strains did not demonstrate correlations among the ability of auxin production, inhibition of pathogens, nitrogen fixation, and stimulation of seed germination and seedling development of host as well as non-host plants.

18(1) #02
10 Feb 2015
citation  abstract  html 
The aim of the study was to investigate the optimal factors needed for establishing an effective protocol for propagation of the cup plant. This species can be applied in medicine, animal feeding, and as a decorative, apiarian energy-producing and  fitoremediation plant. Currently, there is no sufficient sowing material in Poland that would do justice to the present attempts at propagating this species in in vitro growth cultures. As explants were used cotyledonary and leaf fragments with petioles, which were placed onto MS media supplemented with BAP in combination with IAA, ABA, NAA; and onto MS medium fortified with KIN and 2,4 – for callus and shoot bud initiation. The most efficient callus proliferation reported was on MS medium incorporated with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins such as BAP (10 mg·dm-3) + NAA (1.0 mg·dm-3), BAP (0.5 mg·dm-3) + 2,4-D (1.0 mg·dm-3) + IAA (1.0 mg·dm-3) + NAA (1.0 mg·dm-3). The adventitious shoots formed from both the tested explants. It was found that the highest frequency of explants forming shoots were induced on MS medium containing BAP (5.0 mg·dm-3) + IAA (0.05 mg·dm-3) and KIN (0.2 mg·dm-3) + IAA (2.0 mg·dm-3), respectively.
18(1) #01
21 Jan 2015
citation  abstract  html 

Presented results concerning 2 groups of research a) on quality assessment of seeds belonging to 2 Polish and 5 foreign companies, offered on Polish market between 2011–2013, b) on the effect of seed vigour on yield of beet roots. This research was conducted between 2007–2013. The seeds of 58 sugar beet varieties offered on the Polish market differed in vigour level among companies, among varieties within a single company, and years of sale. The magnitude of plant emergence in a phytotron 12 days after seed sowing time, in compost soil (temperature 10ºC and moisture content 60% Fresh Water Content fluctuated from 13.3 to 83.4% depending on the seed company. The speed of one plant emergence estimated at the end of the emergence period oscillated from 11.43–14.25 days. According to the regression equation each 1% increment in a phytotron, emergence increased the yield of roots by 0.247 t·ha-1. Low vigour of seeds belonging to 5 companies decreased the potential yield by 5.3 to 17.2 t·ha-1 in relation to seeds of the 2 best seed companies. Each seed company is able to offer seeds of the best quality on the Polish market. Sales of low quality seeds is determined by the general sale policy of seed companies and methods of Polish market treatment in comparison to another national seed market.

18(1) #08
20 Mar 2015
citation  abstract  html 

In crops, Zinc deficiency is an important problem, causing decreased crop production and food quality. Cereals have significant role in satisfying daily calorie intake, but they very low in Zn contents in grain specially when grown on Zn-deficit alkali soils of Iran. Amendment in seed zinc content through agronomic biofortification is one of the most important agronomic strategies to overcome Zn deficiency in human. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Zn application on yield, yield components, seed zinc and protein content as randomized complete block design based factorial with three replications. Three spring wheat cultivars (Darya, Tadjan and N-80-19) with five fertilizer levels including; 0 (control), 25 kg ha-1 (soil application of zinc sulfate in planting time), 0.5% zinc sulfate (spraying in booting stage), 0.5% zinc sulfate (spraying in booting and milk stages) and 0.5% zinc sulfate (spraying in milky and dough stages), were used. The results showed that there were significant difference among cultivars in seed number per spike, max seed number per spikelet, biomass, seed protein and Zn content, thousand kernels weight and yield. Zinc application showed significant effect on spike number per m-2, maximum seed number per spikelet, biomass, seed protein and Zn content, and yield. Interaction effect of zinc on cultivar was only significant on seed protein and Zn content (P≤0.01). Zinc sulfate application at the planting time had the most significant effect on number of spikes number per m2. Zinc foliar application had no significant impact and there was no difference between those treatments and control. Number of seed per spike was the highest in Darya with zinc application at planting time. Darya showed highest seed number per spikelet with significant difference with N-80-19 and Tadjan. Only Zn application at boot stage had no effect on maximum seed number per spikelet and soil application and dual application of Zn increased significantly maximum seed number per spikelet. The highest 1000 kernel weight was belonged to Tadjan and N-80-19 cultivars, but, there was no significant difference with diverse zinc applications. This may be explained by the highest number of seeds with “Darya” spikes and with reverse relationships between 1000 kernel weight and seed number per spikes. Zinc application had no considerable effect on 1000 kernel weight. Zinc application significantly influenced total yield of plants. Highest seed yield was recorded with zinc sulfate application at the planting time and with Darya and Tadjan cultivars. Considering, soil based application of Zn surely affects the quality and protein content of grains. Interaction effects of variety and zinc application were significant (P≤0.01) on grain protein content. Zinc application during milky and dough stages led to the highest Zn accumulation with Darya. Furthermore, the highest protein accumulation was traced at Tadjan with the soil application of zinc sulfate.  Further experiments at diverse environments are needed to explore the different responses of varieties to Zn different types and times of application. According to ours, the highest seed yield and protein content were belonged to soil based application of Zn treatments, however, based on Zn biofortification, foliar spray of Zn treatments during the milky and dough stages had the most promising effects. These results showed that agronomic biofertification method appear to be essential in maintaining adequate Zn transport to the grains specially during reproductive growth stage.

18(1) #04
26 Feb 2015
Veterinary Medicine
citation  abstract  html 

The studies of the vascularization of the cerebrum in raccoon dog were performed on 60 cerebral hemispheres. The middle cerebral artery is the strongest vessel supplying blood to the cerebrum. The artery gets divided into ten permanent branches. Two olfactory arteries supply the region of the cerebrum located on the border between the old and the new cortex. The other eight supply the region of the new cortex: three branches aiming at the frontal lobe, two branches at the parietal lobe and three temporal branches aiming at temporal area. The frontal, parietal and temporal branches descended independently from the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery or formed a common trunk. Common trunks for respective groups of branches have been described as the anterior, superior and posterior middle cerebral artery. In 5% of cases there were two independent branches of the middle cerebral artery extending from the rostral cerebral artery.

18(1) #03
11 Feb 2015
citation  abstract  html 

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage on some physical traits of ‘cherry’ tomato fruits. Plants of 'Dasher F1' cv. were grown in a greenhouse in rockwool slabs. 1-MCP was applied directly after harvest at two stages of fruit maturity (pink and light red fruit, i.e. at 3rd and 5th stages, according to USDA classification) in the concentration of 1.0 μL·L-1, for 12 hours at 18°C. In the case of the experiment with CA storage, untreated pink fruits were stored under gas compositions: 3% CO2 + 3% O2, 3% CO2 + 1.5% O2 and under regular atmosphere (control). All fruits in both experiments were stored at the temperature of 12°C, 85% RH. The following physical traits of the fruits were determined before storage and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of storage: colour in CIE L*a*b* system (L* – lightness, a* – redness, b* – yellowness) and flesh firmness with HPE scale, ranged from 0 to 100. Also C* colour parameter (chroma value) was calculated. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced the decreasing of fruits firmness during storage, as well as changes of colour parameters. The effectiveness of CA in both gas compositions was not so high. Particularly, the CA storage did not delay the firmness decrease so effectively as 1-MCP treatment. It can be concluded that 1-MCP treatment is an effective method in delaying ripening of ‘cherry’ tomato fruits by keeping their firmness and colour and can be used to extend their storage period.

18(1) #09
26 Mar 2015
Animal Husbandry
citation  abstract  html 

The aim of study was to examine the effect of bulls breed and collection month on characteristics of ejaculates: volume, concentration of spermatozoa, wave motion, percentage of live sperm in the ejaculate and percent of morphological defects of spermatozoa. The investigation was carried out on the 3454 beef bulls ejaculates collected from the following breeds: Limousine, Simmental, Piemontese, Charolaise, Blonde d’Aquitaine. Results reviled that breed and collection month significantly influenced volume, concentration of spermatozoa, wave motion, percentage of live sperm in the ejaculate and percent of morphological defects of spermatozoa obtained from beef bulls used for insemination. The highest volume of semen had Simmental bulls (5,69 ± 0,13 ml), the smallest volume of ejaculate characterized by semen collected from Piemontese bulls (3,05 ± 0,07 ml). Blonde d’Aquitaine breed had the highest concentration of spermatozoa (1545,57 ± 19,8 thous./ml). The Piemontese semen characterised by the smallest concentration (895,56 ± 15,45 thous./ml). Ejaculates collected in August and September had the largest volume, in January the lowest value of this trait was recorded. The highest concentration of spermatozoa had ejaculates collected in January. The lowest content of spermatozoa was recorded in August and September. Seasonal variability of sperm parameters was probably the result of a complex range of factors that can affect the animal organism, and the crucial is the air temperature.

18(1) #07
19 Mar 2015
citation  abstract  html 

The research was concerned with assessment of the level of income from family farms specialized in arable crops in the years 2014–2020. The analysis assumed a stochastic nature of yields of chosen crops and their prices on the basis of historic data. Using data and measures of the Polish FADN, five models of farms were created and simulations were carried out addressing also the problem of the influence of implementation of agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment on the economic situation of farms. The obtained results indicate that nominal income from the family farm in the majority of farms will remain at the level similar to the income in the year 2014. Agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, as the new instrument of Common Agricultural Policy, may influence both the structure of crops and the economic situation only in the case of farms of the biggest acreage.


Legend:  Citation Citation Information     Abstract View Abstract     Article (HTML) View Article (HTML)     Article (PDF) View Article (PDF)