EJPAU, 2011, Volume 14, Issue 1

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14(1) #01
03 Jan 2011
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The integration process of the Polish financial system with the European markets significantly affected profitability of the non-life insurance sector in Poland. During this period, the level of invested capital and number of companies controlled by foreign investors has increased, as well as the share of premiums collected by these companies in the total premiums of the sector. The period of financial integration was characterized by a significant improvement of financial performance of the sector, as well as profitability of its insurance and investment activities. To check determinants of the profitability tests, were conducted on a panel of 25 non-life insurance companies for the period of 2002–2009. For estimation a regression model with elimination of the impact of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation in the analyzed sample was used. The results indicate that the reduction in the share of motor insurance in the portfolio, with simultaneous increase of other types of insurance, has a positive impact on profitability and cost-efficiency of insurance companies. However, offering too broad spectrum of classes of insurance negatively impacts its profitability and cost efficiency. Companies improve profitability and cost efficiency with an increase of their gross premiums and decrease of total operating expenses. Additionally increases of the GDP growth and the market share of foreign owned companies positively impact profitability of non-life insurance companies during the integration period.

14(1) #02
04 Jan 2011
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The study aimed at investigating the combined application of prometryn (herbicide) plus benzoic acid at different concentrations for controlling weeds and on seed yield in lentil (Lens culinaris L. cv. Giza 370). The experiment was carried out in the new reclaimed land of Egypt (Experimental Station of NRC, El-Nobaria District, El Behera Governorate) during two successive seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09). The application of prometryn at 600 g a.i.·ha-1 in tank mixture with benzoic acid at the concentration of 720 g·ha-1 resulted in as effective-weed control and yield as applying the herbicide alone at the recommended dose (1200 g a.i.·ha-1), without apparent toxicity on lentil plants. Using the herbicide at 900 g a.i.·ha-1 in combination with benzoic acid at either concentrations (240, 480 and 720 g) was also good, however it was toxic to lentil especially at the higher concentration of benzoic acid. None of the herbicide treatments resulted in yields higher than the hand-weeded treatment performed twice. The primary benefit from the application of benzoic acid in this study was to reduce the herbicidal doses and then environmental pollution.

14(1) #05
25 Jan 2011
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Cereals are cultivated nearly on 75% of an area of an arable land in Poland. Cereal production contributes to 22.9% of the global agricultural production and 38.8% of plant production. An income situation of the Polish producers of cereals was disadvantageous in 2009. There was observed a decrease in profitability of this branch since 2008. An essential role for the income situation of wheat producers was played by payments, which guaranteed a positive financial effect of this production activity. Research allowed to displaying a small role of an intervention purchase as a factor stabilizating income on this branch market.

14(1) #08
14 Mar 2011
Animal Husbandry
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The research involved 66 adult, one-year-old individuals of American mink bred in enclosure in the region of Kuyavia and Pomerania. There were taken measurements of the body length and trunk with the neck. Then the abdominal part of the alimentary canal was prepared. Having removed the mesentery, there were taken measurements of the total length of intestine and its components. The total length of intestine in American mink was on average 190.56cm. Small intestine accounted for 85.82% of the total intestine length, while large intestine – only for 9.22%. The ratio of the body length to the intestine length was 1:5.32.

14(1) #03
18 Jan 2011
Geodesy and Cartography
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Spatial databases have become a very important domain of databases recently. A standardization of the storing and analyzing methods provides consistency of data, makes it easier to combine these data and allows to integrate projects.
There is a problem of standardization for leading public domain databases with spatial extensions described in this article. The two main standards – OGC OpenGIS and SQL/MM are presented. The consideration focuses primarily on two databases: PostgreSQL + PostGIS and MySQL Spatial. The problem of standard implementation is the main issue. The way of integration spatial extension with database system is described. The level of standard implementation is discussed. Examples for analytical functions are given. Several available language constructions of creating queries are presented.
The integration and implementation level of presented spatial extensions differs. MySQL Spatial is well integrated, but realizes only part of OGC OpenGIS standard. PostGIS implements two standards almost entirely, but there way of spatial database creating is much more complicated. The considerations are illustrated with examples in SQL.

14(1) #09
31 Mar 2011
Food Science and Technology
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Marinated herring is one of the popular fish preparations all over Europe and particularly in Poland. The aim of this paper is to asses the commercially available herring marinades as a source of LC n-3 PUFA and to analyse the level of lipid oxidation in these products. 16 assortments of oil marinades available in the domestic market, delivered by five major producers, were examined. In both meat lipids, extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method, and in marinating liquid the following qualities were measured: the composition of fatty acids and the level of oxidation (PV, AV and TOTOX). The prevalent group of fatty acids were MUFA, averaging 48% of the total, followed by PUFA, with an average of 28%, and  SFA, 24% on the average. An analysis of lipid oxidation revealed: PV of 8–17 meq O2/kg,  AV of 4–19, and TOTOX value between 24–53. The level of lipid oxidation showed good reservoir quality, as in any of the samples did not exceed TOTOX index value 10. A 100g portion of product (meat) contains, depending on the sort, 2.7–3.8 g of n-3 PUFA and 2–2.7g/100g of EPA + DHA. Despite the fact that many factors, such as hauling season, method of storing raw material, differences in technology can affect lipid composition of fillets, it is not arguable that oil marinades available in the domestic market are a rich source of essential long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Nonetheless, when consuming fish products of this kind one should bear in mind that they may contain high amounts of oxidation products leading to a rancid taste of the products.

14(1) #06
04 Feb 2011
Food Science and Technology
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Some physical and mechanical properties of sunflower seeds were studied. The measured parameters were linear dimensions, thousand grain mass, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface and projected area, volume, shape parameters (such as flakiness ratio and elongation ratio), true and bulk densities, porosity, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction of the Shamshiri variety in the moisture range from 6.3 to 20% (w.b.) using standard methods. Average rupture force, deformation and absorbed energy at rupture point of the sunflower seeds under compression as well as the extent of physical damage to seeds due to impact were also determined over a range of moisture contents between 1.8% and 20.3% (w.b). The results showed a variation of 14.32 to 31.00 mm for length, 4.73 to 9.82 mm for width and 2.36 to 6.67 mm for thickness of sunflower seeds. The values of the thousand grain mass, seed volume, true density, bulk density and porosity of sunflower seeds were between149.81–167.77g, 99.05–628.9 mm3, 444.39–521.78 kg/m3, 269.06–275.57 kg/m3 and 39.09–47.18% respectively. The rupture force, deformation, and absorbed energy increased with increase in moisture content from 1.8 to 14.5%, while decreased with further increasing of moisture content from 14.5 to 20.3%. The mean value of percentage of physically damaged seeds increased from 2.75 to 10.81% with increasing the impact velocity from 40.8 to 62.3 m/s. In both impact orientations, the total damaged seeds increased with increase in impact velocity for all moisture contents of seeds.

14(1) #04
24 Jan 2011
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The experiment conducted in the upland part of the Sandomierz region studied the effect of the rainfall deficiency on total, commercial and non-commercial yields of the fruits of high-growing tomato cultivated in the field. Low rainfalls, below the perennial means, occurred in the years 2002–2006 and the obtained results were compared with the values from 2001, which year reflected the average conditions of many years. No effect of low rainfalls on total and commercial yields was observed. In the years deficient in rainfalls, a significantly higher non-commercial yield was obtained where fruits with wrinkled peel dominated. The highest total yield was obtained in the years which were characterized by the highest mean temperature of July.

14(1) #07
11 Mar 2011
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Effects of total suspended solids in riverine water on embryonic development and larval survival, size, and malformation rate in pike (Esox lucius L.) were studied. Total suspended solids in concentrations even below 25 mg · dm-3 (the generally accepted threshold level) were found to inhibit fish embryogenesis by affecting fertilisation (% fertilisation: untreated, filtered riverine water and tap water: 75; 91; 85, respectively), perivitelline space formation (perivitelline space %: untreated, filtered riverine water and tap water: 29.77; 33.07; 29.68, respectively), organogenesis, and hatching (in riverine water – hatching began at 95 D° and terminated at 140 D°; in filtered riverine water – hatching began at 110 D° and terminated at 150 D°). The total suspended solids were also found to affect the larval size: the larvae hatched in water containing suspended 0particulates were smaller than those hatched in clean water (larvae hatched from eggs incubated in riverine water total length 9.34mm,  filtered water – 9.82 mm); the larval malformation rate was higher in the suspended solids-rich water (% malformed larvae – 9.0) than in clean water (% malformed larvae 7.0).

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