EJPAU, 2009, Volume 12, Issue 1

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12(1) #10
13 Mar 2009
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In the present work, the yield of oven dry matter and morphological traits of seven willow genotypes grown on alluvial humus silty soil (Mollic Fluvisols) and on alluvial sandy soil (Eutric Fluvisols) in an annual cutting cycle are presented. In seasons 2001-2004, the average yield of oven willow dry matter amounted to 10.09 Mg·ha-1. Willow grown on Mollic Fluvisols gave a significantly higher yield than the one grown on Eutric Fluvisols, 13.32 and 6.96 Mg·ha-1, respectively. Among the studied genotypes, the significantly highest yield of oven dry matter was found for Salix viminalis 1061 and 1059 on Mollic Fluvisols. The highest yield was obtained in the third season after willow planting – on average on Mollic Fluvisols 16.51 Mg·ha-1. The yield of oven dry matter of willow was positively correlated with stem diameter, plant density, and stem height – values of correlation coefficients 0.57; 0.46; and 0.31, respectively. Willow stem height on average amounted to 2.60 m and plants grown on Mollic Fluvisols were significantly taller than the ones grown on Eutric Fluvisols – 2.96 and 2.23 m, respectively. Willow from Eutric Fluvisols showed thinner stems than willow grown on Mollic Fluvisols. Stems of all genotypes of the species Salix viminalis were thicker than other genotypes studied in the experiment.

12(1) #11
16 Mar 2009
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A soil strain of Pseudomonas putida intensively secreted, under iron deficiency conditions, a single form of siderophore-pyoverdine to the medium. The siderophore was isolated from the culture medium and purified using chelating chromatography. Purified pyoverdine inhibited the growth of all studied Fusarium strains except for F. graminearum. The presence of pyoverdine stimulated the growth of some of the tested strains. Based on MS spectrum analysis it can be concluded that Pseudomonas putida produced a pyoverdine with low molecular mass of 800 Da.

12(1) #06
25 Feb 2009
Civil Engineering
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The paper presents the results of laboratory and field investigations carried out on two kinds of soft soils in north-western Poland. Comprehensive investigations which included the routine and oedometer tests as well as triaxial tests have been conducted in order to study the behaviour of consolidation process in soft subsoils. Analyses of factors which determine the assessment of the deformation process of soft subsoils are presented. The main emphasis has been placed on obtaining the non-linear deformation – stress characteristics, which are being used for modelling of the deformation of soft subsoils under the earth structure.

12(1) #07
26 Feb 2009
Environmental Development
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The paper presents results of rheological measurements conducted on sewage sludge from settling tanks of several municipal sewage treatment plants. The basic purpose was to define rheological properties of the sludge. The experiments were conducted by using coaxial cylinder with a rotating torque. The sludges had solid concentrations in the range of 1.04% to 6.56%. The approximation was made after transforming pseudo-curve obtained from the measurements into the true flow curve, made according to the equation provided by Krieger, Elrod, Maron and Svec. In order to describe rheological characteristics, Herschel-Bulkleys' model was applied. The correlation between rheological parameters (tauo, k, n) and gravimetric concentration (Cs) was calculated. The research has allowed the dimensioning of the main transport installations for pumping sludge. Optimisation of the pump discharge pressure, when transporting viscous sludge in pipelines is of the main interest in wastewater industry. The determination of rheological parameters, especially yield stress (tauo), is important in sludge management, including designed parameters in transporting, storing, spreading.

12(1) #05
24 Feb 2009
Food Science and Technology
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PSE meat is characterized by its pale color, lack of firmness, and fluid (exudate) dripping from its cut surfaces. When cooked, this meat lacks the juiciness of normal meat. PSE meat is unsuitable for processed meats as well, as it results in products which have an undesirable pale color and are swimming in extra fluid. PSE condition results from an abnormally rapid drop in the pH of the carcass after slaughter. The aim of this research study was an attempt of technological optimization of quality of cooked hams produced with a share of PSE meat. The quality of experimental cooked hams were evaluated by determination: Lab colour, shear force and drip loss. The results of the performed investigations revealed that the 20% share of PSE meat in the material composition of experimental hams resulted in increased thermal drip and a deterioration of consistency in comparison to the reference sample produced from normal meat.

12(1) #01
06 Jan 2009
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The experiment was conducted in the years 2003-2005. The purpose of the undertaken studies was, among others, to determine the consecutive effect of forecrop green fertilizers on the content of dry weight, total sugars and reduction sugars, L-ascorbic acid and protein in the utilized parts of leek, 'Blizzard' cv. Leek was cultivated in the second year after applying organic fertilization. Sugar maize grown directly after ploughing in organic fertilizers was the forecrop for leek. Plants for green manure (oats, field pea, common vetch and mixtures of those plants) were sown at the beginning of April and ploughed over in the first days of June of 2002-2004. The consecutive effect of green fertilizers was compared with the effect of manure in the dose of 25 t ha-1, which was ploughed over in the same date as green fertilizers. The studies found out significant differences in the content of dry weight, total sugars and reductions sugars as well as protein in leek depending on the year of cultivation. The greatest amount of sugars and protein was found in leek in 2003, and the greatest amount of dry weight – in the years 2003 and 2005. Green fertilizers had a similar or more positive consecutive effect on the content of the studied elements of nutritional value in leek. Green fertilizer of oats ploughed under sugar maize caused a significant increase of the content of dry weight in leek as compared to fertilization with manure and green fertilizer of common vetch. Ploughing in the green fertilizer in the form of a mixture of oats with common vetch, on the other hand, had a more positive consecutive effect than the catch crop of oats on the accumulation of reduction sugars by leek. More reduction sugars were also found in the leek cultivated in the combinations with catch crops ploughed over as a whole than only with aftercrop residue. The cultivation of leek in the second year after ploughing over the biomass of a mixture of oats with field pea and vetch had the most positive effect on the accumulation of L-ascorbic acid and protein.

12(1) #03
14 Jan 2009
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The present research covered the effect of gladiolus corm storage temperature on the growth and flowering of three cultivars: 'Amsterdam', 'Energy' and 'White Friendship', grown in the glasshouse, starting from February 14. Corms of each cultivar were divided into four groups: I – 12-week storage at 17°C, II – 12-week storage at 5°C, III – 6-week storage at 17°C and then 6-week storage at 5°C as well as IV – exposed to preparation treatment at 22-23°C, having been stored for 4 weeks at 17°C. It was demonstrated that maintaining only the temperature of 17°C during corm storage was most favorable, since the plants of all the cultivars flowered at similar dates as those from the corms additionally exposed to preparation. At the same time plant flowering occurred three weeks earlier than the flowering from the corms stored at 5°C. In all the cultivars researched, in each combination, there was recorded a high share of flowering plants, ranging from 84 to 100%. Irrespective of the cultivar, in the group of corms stored throughout the storage period at 5°C or at 17°C, there were reported shorter stems than those from the corms stored at 17°C and then prepared. The corm storage temperature did not affect the spike length, the number of florets and foliage leaves or the stem diameter.

12(1) #04
18 Feb 2009
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No-tillage method with various cover crops has become popular recently in vegetable production [3]. The aim of a study conducted in 1998-2000 was evaluation of the effect of rye (Secale cereale L.) as a cover crop on the health of roots and stem base of tomato cultivated in the field. The rye decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum and increased the number of antagonistic fungi Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. on the roots and stem base of tomato. The numerical classification method [19, 22] applied to compare fungal communities from the roots and stem base of tomato grown conventionally and in field with rye as cover crop showed that similarity coefficient ranged from 10% to 82%.

12(1) #08
09 Mar 2009
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The purpose of the paper was to determine the strength and direction of the effect of demographic and socio-economic features of the consumers on the opinion and declaration concerning some sensory features of apples such as size, colour, taste and texture as well as to find out variability of preferences between the years 2002 and 2006.
The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from questionnaire studies carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of the studies point out that the consumers' socio-economic and demographic features significantly differentiated the preferences, especially in 2006. Consumers most frequently prefer medium-sized apples, red or yellow ones with colouring, firm and sweet-sour taste. The year of conducting the studies had no significant effect on consumer preferences concerning the texture, while having an influence on preferences for the size of the fruit, the peel colour and the taste.

12(1) #02
13 Jan 2009
Veterinary Medicine
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The aim of the dissertation was to analyse the selected parameters of in vitro fermentation in the rabbit's stomach and to determine the influence of Humobentofet, a humic-mineral-fatty supplement, on them.  The research was conducted on 54 rabbits of the Belgian giant breed, aged 6 months.  The samples of gastric content were taken directly after slaughter and then diluted with a solution containing a buffer selection. To the samples prepared in this way, Humobentofet (HBF) was added at the dose of 10% (group D1) and 15% (group D2) of the taken chyme.  The controls consisted of samples that did not contain HBF. The samples were then fermented in vitro in anaerobic conditions in bottles placed in a shaker with a water bath.  The samples to be analysed were taken from bottles before the fermentation (0. h) and in the course of fermentation, i.e. after 4th, 6th, and 24th hrs of fermentation, in order to determine the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in them by means of gas chromatography. Additionally, the pH as well as the concentration of ammonia and lactic acid were also determined. Subsequently, the percentage concentrations of three most important acids (acetic acid C2, propionic acid C3, and butyric acid C4) in their total concentration, the C3/C4 ratio, the fermentation efficiency, the ratio of energy regained in VFA to the energy lost in methane as well as the VFA utilisation coefficient were calculated.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was concluded that the influence of the humic-mineral-fatty supplement on the in vitro fermentation of the rabbit's gastric content is manifested first of all in the increase of the content of propionic acid in the total volume of VFA, the increase of the fermentation efficiency and the lowering of the non-glycogenic VFA/glycogenic VFA ratio.  Besides, it was observed that the pH of the caecal content was lowered.  The changes enumerated above prove the favourable impact of Humobentofet on the bacterial processes that take place in the rabbit's caecum, especially in the case of animals bred for consumer purposes.

12(1) #09
12 Mar 2009
Veterinary Medicine
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The aim of the studies was to trace changes in urea blood plasma concentration and renal excretion and to compare these between groups of single- and twin-pregnant goats. Clearance tests involved 16 pregnant White Improved does (8 in single- and 8 in twin pregnancy). Urea concentration was determined in blood plasma and urine. It has been demonstrated that renal nitrogen metabolism in pregnant goats is saving in character. Renal retention of urea increases nearly from the onset of gestation and is more intensive in the goats carrying two foetuses, although the differences we found were not statistically significant. Despite the elevated tubular reabsorption of urea in both groups, its blood plasma concentration does not increase; even a falling trend can be seen over the last 3 gestational months (especially in twin pregnancy). This is most probably a result of an increased urea recycling in the lumen of the alimentary tract and an enhanced circulation of this metabolite within the blood-rumen-blood system.

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