EJPAU, 2020, Volume 23, Issue 4

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23(4) #02
17 Nov 2020
Agricultural Engineering
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This work presents the investigation of the influence of repeated passes of medium-weight tractors with single wheels and additional wheels on the soil density to the depth of 0.4 m. The experiments were carried out in the Greater Poland Region (Poland), on light soil (Luvisol, loamy sand). The soil density was analysed in the arable layer at the two depths of 0.08–0.12 m and 0.18–0.22 m and in the plough pan at a depth of 0.30–0.34 m. The tractors weighing 52.1, 62.8 and 71.8 kN equipped with single wheels (standard wheels) and tractors weighing 52.1 and 71.8 kN equipped with additional wheels were used in the experiments. The research proved that repeated passes of the tractors with standard and addition wheels caused a linear or non-linear (logarithmic) increase in the soil density in the arable layer. Only light tractor 52.1 kN with dual wheels caused soil density increase in the hard pen. The above soil density changes inconsistent depend on the weight tractors and mean tractor pressure. Repeated passes of tractors with additional wheels resulted in lower soil density in the arable layer especially by second and third pass. A larger number of passes of middle-weight tractors with standard wheels as well with additional wheels increases the risk of reduced yield of cultivated plants.

23(4) #04
04 Dec 2020
Civil Engineering
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In this paper we suggest to develop the theoretical approach and numerical modeling for non-steady turbulent transport of liquid flows in simple and branched pipelines. The basic problems for non-steady flows, such as starting and stopping of hydraulic pipeline systems, hydraulic impact and other were studied. Some concrete numerical algorithms for simulation of such kind of non-steady flows were also proposed in this paper.

23(4) #03
18 Nov 2020
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The paper analyzes the features of agri-food market functioning in Ukraine. Taking into account the importance of the agri-food sector in Ukraine, the authors develop the model for determining the optimal structure of production, processing and export of agricultural products. The purpose of the study was to define the optimal relation of agri-food industries in Ukraine that would provide a balance of production, processing, and export in Odessa, Mykolaiv, and Kherson regions of Ukraine while maintaining the maximum economic productivity of the regional agricultural system. The multi variant model based on the methodology of mathematical modelling in economics was developed to define the optimal structure of production, processing, and export of agricultural products. The model was developed based on the statistical data of Mykolaiv, Odessa, and Kherson regions of Ukraine. Using the model matrix, the authors analyze the statistical information as the input data to forecast the trends for the domestic agri-food market in Ukraine. The authors develop the system of variables and constraints indices that includes the sets of regions; agricultural and processed industries; planted areas in a corresponding region; numbers of cattle in the regions; processing and distribution of agricultural products; production of processed outcomes; agricultural and processed products sales in the domestic market; agricultural and processed products export; general needs in different kinds of resources; additional feed; production capacity; raw materials; general expenses on production and processing of agri-food products; general expenses of labor resources; general cost of final agri-food products in the domestic market; processed products costs in the domestic market; export agri-food products costs. Considering the developed system of 9 structural groups of constrains, the model deals with such coefficients and parameters as planted area, raw materials, production and sales volumes of agri-food products, and export volumes of these products. The paper allows to conclude that optimization of the parameters reflected in the model will allow to increase the productivity and export potential of agri-food industries in Ukraine. Although these industries are influenced by climate and political risks, the model can be used to optimize the relation of important components of Ukrainian agri-food market in order to improve its competitiveness and productivity. Thus, by optimizing the relation of planted area for growing cereals, industrial crops, vegetable crops and melon fields, the raw material base for processing industry and feed, numbers of cattle for regional needs, and the export potential for agricultural and processing industries higher productivity of Ukrainian agri-food industries can be achieved.

23(4) #06
23 Dec 2020
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Analysis of factors influencing public relations (PR) in agricultural marketing are scarce in the literature. Thus, this study identified the different types of adopted PR strategies, described the structure of cocoa market, estimated the marketing margin, determined factors affecting PR strategies and outlined the major challenges hindering the use of PR among certified and non-certified cocoa marketers. A combination of purposive and proportional sampling techniques were used to select 120 respondents for the study. To achieve the research objectives, the analytical tools are: descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, Herfindal Index, marketing efficiency model, marketing margin and multiple regression analysis. The result revealed that the most frequently used PR strategies was phone calls. The Herfindahl Index value of 0.19 and 0.12 suggested that the structure of cocoa markets among the certified and non-certified marketers was slightly concentrated and non-concentrated respectively. Moreover, the higher efficiency (122.6%) and marketing margin (18.44%) values for the certified cocoa marketers revealed that they are more productive than the non-certified marketers. Age, marketing margin, cost of damaged cocoa beans and household size are the important variables explaining the adoption of PR strategies among certified cocoa marketers. On the other hand, marketing margin, cost of damaged cocoa beans and household size are the important variables influencing the adoption of PR strategies among non-certified marketers. The most important factors hindering cocoa marketing are high cost of transportation and commission among certified and non-certified cocoa marketer respectively. We recommend the use of mobile phone and training of marketers on use of PR strategies and modern cocoa processing techniques. Irregular network, high airtime tariff and input subsidies challenges should be addressed by the government to reduce wastage in the industry.

23(4) #01
17 Nov 2020
Environmental Development
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Green areas in cities have a different character. Apart from parks, an important role is played by estate greenery, which, due to its direct presence in the vicinity of buildings and apartments, has an impact on the quality of life and decisions made when buying a flat. The article compares greenery resources in six Wroc³aw housing estates, built in 1960–2010, i.e. at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. To assess the quality of greenery, an inventory of its resources was made. In order to assess social conditions, a survey was carried out among the inhabitants of the analyzed housing complexes. The greenery of the residential complexes from the 1970s and 1980s is diverse, rich especially in woody species, although it is not consistent in terms of composition. There are often plantings introduced by residents, probably as a substitute for home gardens and an element of "taming" the space. Greenery in the estates from the 21st century has a high aesthetic and compositional value. Plantings of shrubs and perennials prevail. The inhabitants' lack of creativity in planting their own is visible.

23(4) #05
11 Dec 2020
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Among the ways that the alien can introduce to a new environment is the aquarium trade that became one of the major problem facing the existing of the native species worldwide. This study confirms the presence of an established non-native molly population in two inland water in Oman. The sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna was positively identified using the number of scales around the caudal peduncle as the main pinpointing character within the sailfin molly species complex. The study also reports on the presence of imperfect melanism incidence in one specimen of P. latipinna collected from Al-Amarat area. The causative factor of this anomaly was discussed. 

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